Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and kidney diseases in diabetes are linked to increased mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vindoline derived from Catharanthus roseus in diabetes-induced CVDs and kidney disease through assessing inflammation, oxidative stress, hyperlipidaemia and kidney function parameters. Type 2 diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by 10% fructose water intake for two weeks, followed by a single intraperitonealinjection of 40 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin (STZ). Six groups (n = 8) of randomly divided rats received vindoline (20 mg/kg) or glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) daily for 6 weeks via oral gavage. Lipid profile markers and markers of atherogenic index were decreased in diabetic rats after treatment with vindoline and glibenclamide. The levels of urea were significantly increased in the diabetic control group (13.66 ± 0.9) compared to the diabetic groups treated with vindoline and glibenclamide (10.62 ± 0.6 and 10.82 ± 0.8), respectively. Vindoline did not significantly alter the levels of inflammatory cytokines; however glibenclamide lowered the levels of TNF-α in kidney and heart tissues. Vindoline improved the ferric reducing antioxidant power in diabetic hearts, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) oxygen radical absorbance capacity was increased in the kidneys. Lipid peroxidation was reduced when compared to the diabetic controls. Vindoline restored the structure of the renal parenchyma and was accompanied by significant decrease in the expression of caspase 9 in diabetic rats when compared to the diabetic controls.