VKORC1 and VKORC1L1 have distinctly different oral anticoagulant dose-response characteristics and binding sites

Czogalla, K. J., Liphardt, K., Höning, K., Hornung, V., Biswas, A., Watzka, M., & Oldenburg, J.

Blood advances 2.6 (2018): 691-702.

Vitamin K reduction is catalyzed by 2 enzymes in vitro: the vitamin K 2, 3-epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) and its isozyme VKORC1-like1 (VKORC1L1). In vivo, VKORC1 reduces vitamin K to sustain γ-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, including coagulation factors. Inhibition of VKORC1 by oral anticoagulants (OACs) is clinically used in therapy and in prevention of thrombosis. However, OACs also inhibit VKORC1L1, which was previously shown to play a role in intracellular redox homeostasis in vitro. Here, we report data for the first time on specific inhibition of both VKOR enzymes for various OACs and rodenticides examined in a cell-based assay. Effects on endogenous VKORC1 and VKORC1L1 were independently investigated in genetically engineered HEK 293T cells that were knocked out for the respective genes by CRISPR/Cas9 technology. In general, dose-responses for 4-hydroxycoumarins and 1, 3-indandiones were enzyme-dependent, with lower susceptibility for VKORC1L1 compared with VKORC1. In contrast, rodenticides exhibited nearly identical dose-responses for both enzymes. To explain the distinct inhibition pattern, we performed in silico modeling suggesting different warfarin binding sites for VKORC1 and VKORC1L1. We identified arginine residues at positions 38, 42, and 68 in the endoplasmatic reticulum luminal loop of VKORC1L1 responsible for charge-stabilized warfarin binding, resulting in a binding pocket that is diametrically opposite to that of VKORC1. In conclusion, our findings provide insight into structural and molecular drug binding on VKORC1, and especially on VKORC1L1.


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