Preparation and Coagulation Performance of Carboxypropylated and Carboxypentylated Lignosulfonates for Dye Removal

Bahrpaima, K., & Fatehi, P.

Biomolecules, 9(8), 383.

In this work, 1-carboxypropyled (1-CPRLS) and 5-carboxypentyled lignosulfonates (5-CPELS) were synthesized using 2-chlorobutanoic acid and 6-chlorohexanoic acid as carboxylate group donors via SN1 and SN2 mechanisms, respectively. 1-Carboxypropyl and 5-carboxypentyl lignosulfonates with the charge densities of -3.45 and -2.94 meq g-1 and molecular weights of 87,900 and 42,400 g mol-1 were produced, respectively, under mild conditions. The carboxylate content and degree of substitution (DS) of the 1-CPRLS product were 2.37 mmol g-1 and 0.70 mol mol-1, while those of 5-CPELS products were 2.13 mmol g-1 and 0.66 mol mol-1, respectively. The grafting of carboxypropyl and carboxypentyl groups to lignosulfonate was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) spectroscopies. In addition, 1-CPRLS and 5-CPELS were applied as coagulants for removing ethyl violet (EV) dye from asimulated solution, and their performance was related to their charge densities and molecular weights. Furthermore, fundamental discussion is provided on the advantages of (1) producing 1-CPRLS and (2) the superior properties and performance of 1-CPRLS to carboxyethylated lignosulfonate.

Preparation and Coagulation Performance of Carboxypropylated and Carboxypentylated Lignosulfonates for Dye Removal

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