Occurrence and emission of phthalates and non-phthalate plasticizers in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea

Lee, Y. S., Lee, S., Lim, J. E., & Moon, H. B.

Environment 692 (2019): 354-360.

Phthalates are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that cause adverse health effects in wildlife and humans. Due to domestic and global regulations of phthalates in commercial products, non-phthalate plasticizers (NPPs) have been introduced into industrial markets. Few studies have been conducted on the occurrence of phthalates and NPPs in sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, sludge samples were collected from 40WWTPs in Korea to investigate the occurrence, compositional profiles, and emission flux of phthalates and NPPs. Total concentrations of phthalates and NPPs in sludge ranged from 4.7 to 1400 (mean: 110) μg/g dry weight and from 0.17 to 780 (mean: 28.0) μg/g dry weight, respectively. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was a predominant compound, suggesting widespread consumption in Korea. Di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate (DEHT) was dominant in industrial sludge samples, whereas di-isononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH) and trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM) were dominant in domestic sludge. This implies different consumption patterns of phthalate alternatives by industry and domestic activities. Concentrations of NPPs were significantly correlated with those of high-molecular-weight (HMW) phthalates, indicating that HMW phthalates were preferentially replaced by NPPs. The emission fluxes of phthalates via domestic WWTP activities were higher than those measured for industrial WWTPs, while the emission fluxes of NPPs via industrial WWTPs were higher than those found for domestic and industrial WWTPs. This indicates that phthalate emissions are associatedwith household activities, while NPP emissions are associated with industrial activities.

Occurrence and emission of phthalates and non-phthalate plasticizers in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea

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3319-31-13319-31-1TOTMInquiry
166412-78-8166412-78-8Di-isononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylateInquiry

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