Plant essential oils and its chemical compositions are commonly applied in medicinal and other industries due to their broad advanced pharmacological activities. In the present study, we systematically evaluated the acaricidal activities of twelve compounds of essential oils against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro and in vivo. In addition, to support the clinic uses, their toxicities against immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human liver cells (HL-7702) and skin irritation were studied for evaluating the liver and skin safety. The possible mechanism of action of certain chemical were investigated by determining the inhibitory activities against cytochrome P450 (P450) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Among all tested compounds, eugenol exhibited the best acaricidal activity with LC50 value of 56.61 μg/ml in vitro. Meanwhile, after the treatment of eugenol for five times within 10 days, the P. cuniculi were eliminated in the naturally infested rabbits, no skin irritation was found in rabbits treated by eugenol. Moreover, eugenol presented no or weak cytotoxicity against HaCaT cells and HL-7702 cells with IC50 values of greater than 100 μg/ml. Furthermore, the moderate inhibitory activities of eugenol against mites P450 and AChE were demonstrated. Above results indicated that eugenol presented the promising acaricidal activity against P. cuniculi in vitro and in vivo, is safe for both humans and animals at the given doses. This work lays the foundation for the development of eugenol as an environmentally friendly acaricide agent.