Aroma intensities of rice are correlated with the mixture of aroma compounds it contains. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) has been reported as a major aroma compound and as a characteristic compound in fragrant rice. In this study, Thai local cultivars were classified into fragrant and non-fragrant rice based on the 2AP content and molecular characterization. Local rice cultivars were also examined for their proline content and volatile compounds profile, which are important factors in determining aroma. The results suggested that 43 Thai local rice cultivars were classified into 25 fragrant rice cultivars and 18 non-fragrant cultivars. The type of fragrant rice cultivars included 16 non-colored and 9 colored rice cultivars, while the type of non-fragrant rice cultivars included 14 non-colored and 4 colored rice cultivars. The proline content of local rice cultivars was determined and showed no correlation with the 2AP content; however, the proline level appears to be associated with the environmental stress in the rice cultivation area. One hundred and forty volatile compounds were identified from local rice cultivars. Among the detected compounds, 18volatile compounds, including hexanal 1-pentanol octanal (E)-2-heptenal 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one 1-hexanol nonanal 2-butoxy-ethanol (E)-2-octenal 1-tetradecene 1-octen-3-ol decanal benzaldehyde (E)-2-nonenal 1-nonanol benzyl alcohol isovanillin and vanillin contributed to the aroma intensities of both fragrant and non-fragrant rice. Aroma compounds were more abundant in fragrant than in non-fragrant rice. Moreover, the levels of aroma compounds recorded in non-colored cultivars were higher than those in colored rice cultivars. In contrast, the 2AP content of colored rice cultivars was higher than that in noncolored rice cultivars. Our findings may assist rice breeding programs in producing a new aromatic genotype rice with high potential aroma intensities.