Degradation kinetics of oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban (RIV) was assessed in acid and alkaline media and while exposed to UVC radiation. Among all stress conditions tested, kinetic degradation process was better described by a zero-order model. A stability indicating method was validated for the analysis of the anticoagulant RIV in tablets by high-performance liquid chromatography. Robustness was evaluated with a two-level Plackett-Burman experimental design. The effect of acute exposition of the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cell line to RIV stressed samples (100 and 500 μM) was assessed through in vitro toxicity tests. MTT reduction, neutral red uptake, mitochondrial membrane potential, and low molecular weight DNA diffusion assays were employed for cytotoxicity evaluation (5×104 cells/well). The genotoxic potential was assessed by comet assay (2×104 cells/well). Acute toxicity to HepG2 cells was assessed after 24 h incubation with sample solutions, for each test. A direct relationship between the increased amount of alkaline degradation products and higher cytotoxic potential was found. Results obtained by viability assay investigations support the concerns on risks associated with acute toxicity and genotoxicity of pharmaceutical samples containing degradation products as impurities.