On January 7, 2020, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) identified a new type of coronavirus from a patient’s throat swab sample, which was originally named 2019-nCoV by the World Health Organization (WHO). Most patients with 2019-nCoV pneumonia have mild symptoms and a good prognosis. To date, some patients have developed severe pneumonia, pulmonary edema, ARDS or multiple organ failure, and death. As of 22:09 on March 1, 2020, a total of 79,972 cases have been confirmed in China, with a total of 2,873 deaths; a total of 7,476 cases have been confirmed abroad, with a total of 117 deaths.
On February 11, 2020, WHO renamed the disease to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). On the same day, the Coronavirus Research Group of the International Committee for Taxonomy of Viruses, which is responsible for classifying and naming viruses, published an article on bioRxiv, stating that the research group has decided that the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV was responsible for the severe outbreak of 2002-2003. A variant of the acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Therefore, this new pathogen was renamed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2.
Figure 1 Novel coronavirus of 2019 (2019-ncov)
Coronavirus can cause multi-system infection in a variety of animals. Six coronaviruses have previously infected humans, mainly causing respiratory infections in humans: two highly lethal coronaviruses, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronaviruses (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses (MERS-CoV); Four types of coronavirus cause mild upper respiratory disease: HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1.
Based on the severe damage caused by the epidemic to China and the world, the following is a review of recent progress made in the 2019-nCoV / COVID-19 study.
1.Lancet papers from Chinese scientists reveal that Wuhan’s novel coronavirus is similar to SARS virus
Novel coronavirus, known as 2019-nCoV, is spreading rapidly in China and nearby countries. Two new studies suggest that the symptoms that are similar to those observed in the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003 appear to be similar. The two new studies are the first clinical studies to be conducted in patients infected with 2019-nCoV. The coronavirus originated in Wuhan, a city in Central China.
2.Lancet: Chinese scientists explore potential origins of 2019-nCoV
Chinese research institutes and a number of researchers report of nine patients from Wuhan, China 10 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) genome sequence has carried on the new genetic analysis, found that the virus and two bats source of SARS-CoV(severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) sample coronavirus is most closely related.
3.Lancet: Chinese scientists detail the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 2019-nCoV pneumonia patients in Wuhan
doi: 10.1016 / S0140-6736 (20) 30211-7
Researchers from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences have comprehensively explored the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 patients diagnosed with 2019-nCoV pneumonia and admitted to Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital. This is a more in-depth descriptive study of the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV.
4.NEJM: Academician Gao Fu publishes paper on new coronavirus infection pneumonia
doi: 10.1056 / NEJMoa2001017
On December 30, 2019, three bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital. The RNA extracted from the patient’s bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was used as a template, and the genome was cloned and sequenced in combination with Illumina sequencing and nanopore sequencing.
5.NEJM: Chinese scientists reveal early transmission of novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China in 2019
doi: 10.1056 / NEJMoa2001316
In a new study, researchers from the China center for disease control and prevention (China CDC), several provincial, municipal or district centers for disease control and prevention, and the university of Hong Kong analyzed data from the first 425 laboratory-confirmed cases in Wuhan to describe the epidemiological characteristics and transmission dynamics of the 2019-nCoV pneumonia. In this study, these researchers provided a preliminary assessment of 2019-nCoV pneumonia transmission kinetics and epidemiological characteristics.
6. Scientists focus on latency of new coronavirus 2019-nCoV
news source: Scientists Zero in on the Novel Coronavirus’s Incubation Period
On January 25, 2020, Ma Xiaowei, director of the National Health Council of China, announced that researchers believe that the incubation period (the time required for an infected person to develop symptoms) of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV can be as long as 14 days. He also said that during this incubation period, at least some patients seemed to be able to transmit the virus. Scientists plan to study how the virus interacts with the immune system in human respiratory tract cell lines.
7. NEJM: U.S.’s first 2019-nCoV coronavirus confirmed case treatment record
doi: 10.1056 / NEJMoa2001191
In a new case report, researchers from the 2019-nCoV case investigation team in Washington State reported the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the first 2019-nCoV infection confirmed in the United States, and described the identification cases, diagnosis, monitoring and management of clinical course, including from the initial mild symptoms in this patient to sicken nine days progress to pneumonia.
8. Lancet: Alarmist or sensationalist? New study estimates that as many as 75,800 people in Wuhan could be infected with 2019-nCoV coronavirus
doi: 10.1016 / S0140-6736 (20) 30260-9
In a new model study, researchers from the University of Hong Kong, China estimated that as of January 25, 2020, as many as 75,800 people in Wuhan, China could be infected with the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). They caution that the true scale of the 2019-nCoV outbreak and its pandemic potential remain unclear, given the absence of a reliable and detailed timetable for records of suspected cases, probable cases and confirmed cases and close contacts. This new estimate also suggests that dozens of 2019-nCoV infection cases may have been introduced from Wuhan by major cities in China, enough to trigger a local outbreak.
Figure 2 Major routes of outbound air and train travel originating from Wuhan during chunyun, 2019
9. Nat Commun: SKP2 inhibitors such as niclosamide reduce MERS-CoV coronavirus replication in vitro by up to 28,000 times
doi: 10.1038 / s41467-019-13659-4
In a new study, researchers from research institutes such as the University of Munich in Germany have discovered a cell recovery process called autophagy as a potential target against MERS-CoV. They report that autophagy-inducing substances, including certain drugs that have been approved for sale, can greatly reduce the replication rate of the virus. The researchers will also test whether SKP2 inhibitors might fight other coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) currently raging in China.
10.Science sub-journal: Modified cyclodextrin molecules can be used as broad-spectrum virus-killing drugs, while preventing the development of virus resistance
doi: 10.1126 / sciadv.aax9318
In a new study, researchers from Switzerland, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States have developed new antiviral substances made from sugar molecules. They can kill the virus on contact and may help fight viral outbreaks. They found they could be used to treat viral infections such as herpes simplex virus (HSV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). Although in the early stages of development, the broad-spectrum activity of these new antiviral substances may also be effective against newly circulating viral diseases, such as the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) epidemic that has recently raged in China.
Figure 3 Interactions of CDs with gB proteins