1.[Determination of six anticoccidials in chicken using QuEChERS combined with ultra high liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry].
Muharem M, Yan H, Xu S, Feng N, Hao J, Zhu C, Guo S, Zhang Z, Han N. Se Pu. 2015 Nov;33(11):1199-204.
An ultra high liquid chromatography-Q Exactive orbitrap mass spectrometry multi-residue method has been developed for the determination of six anticoccidials residues (dinitlmide, nicarbazin, diclazuril, toltrazuril, monensin and salinomycin) in chicken tissue. Sample preparation was based on QuEChERS method, using 1% (v/v) trichloroacetic acid/acetonitrile aqueous solution (3:7, v/v) as the extraction solvent and salting-out with sodium chloride followed by clean-up with 50 mg/mL primary secondary amine (PSA) +50 mg/mL neutral alumina (Alumina-N) dispersive solid phase extraction (DSPE). The separation of the compounds in liquid chromatography was carried out using a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C8 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) with mobile phases consisting of methanol-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution in gradient elution. The Q Exactive orbitrap mass spectrometric detection was carried out with positive and negative electrospray ionization simultaneously.
2.Metaphylactic treatment strategies with toltrazuril and diclazuril and growth performance of buffalo calves exposed to a natural eimeria infection.
Bosco A1, Rinaldi L2, Cappelli G1, Saratsis A3, Nisoli L4, Cringoli G5. Vet Parasitol. 2015 Sep 15;212(3-4):408-10. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.06.034. Epub 2015 Jul 13.
Five controlled field trials were conducted in southern Italy to evaluate the effect of metaphylactic treatment strategies of toltrazuril and diclazuril for the control of coccidiosis in water buffaloes naturally infected by Eimeria spp. The 5 farms were divided into two types (A and B) according to their management system (individual or collective breeding of buffalo calves). In the farms of type A (no. 3), the buffalo calves were bred in individual boxes from the birth to the 7th/8th week of age and then transferred to concrete based pens; in the farms of type B (no. 2) the calves were bred in groups on concrete based pens from the birth. On each farm, 36 calves aged 5 weeks were divided at random into three similar groups of 12. One group was treated with toltrazuril (TOL), the second group was treated with diclazuril (DIC) and the third group was remained as untreated control group (CONT). On each farm the calves were weighed weekly and clinically examined.
3.Significance of Timing on Effect of Metaphylactic Toltrazuril Treatment against Eimeriosis in Calves.
Enemark HL1, Dahl J, Enemark JM. Parasitol Res. 2015 Aug;114 Suppl 1:S201-12. doi: 10.1007/s00436-015-4526-8.
In this multicentric, randomised, blinded and placebo-controlled field study, the effect of treatment with toltrazuril (Baycox(®) Bovis, Bayer) on oocyst excretion, diarrhoea score and weight gain was studied in Danish dairy herds with confirmed history of eimeriosis (coccidiosis) and prevalence of Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. Three commercial herds and a total of 71 calves, aged 48 - 135 days, were included. Treatment with a single oral dose of toltrazuril (15 mg/kg) was given after relocation to common pens and one week before expected outbreak of eimeriosis. The effect of treatment was followed by weekly faecal sampling and weighing initially and at the end of a study period of 8 weeks. In Herd 2 and 3 toltrazuril treated calves gained on average 7.95 kg more than placebo treated calves (p = 0.007), and both oocyst excretion and prevalence of Eimeria spp. were significantly reduced the first weeks post treatment. In Herd 1, by contrast, the farmer made some unforeseen changes in the management which entailed relocation to large deep-litter pens 3 - 6 weeks post treatment.
4.Efficacy of treatment of elevated coccidial oocyst counts in goats using amprolium versus ponazuril.
Gibbons P1, Love D2, Craig T3, Budke C4. Vet Parasitol. 2016 Mar 15;218:1-4. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.12.020. Epub 2015 Dec 28.
Coccidiosis is an important disease of young goats leading to weight loss, diarrhea, and death. In the USA, both ionophores and decoquinate are labeled for prevention of coccidia in goats. However, there are no drugs approved for treatment of clinical cases of coccidiosis in this species. Amprolium is labeled for treatment of coccidiosis in calves while ponazuril, a metabolite of toltrazuril, is labeled for treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. In this study, 150 young goats housed on concrete lots had fecal samples collected and McMaster fecal oocyst per gram counts performed at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days post-processing. Goats were randomly assigned to receive either amprolium (50mg/kg once a day for 5 days by mouth) or ponazuril (10mg/kg by mouth once) if they had fecal oocyst counts >5,000 per gram. Fecal samples were obtained and oocyst counts performed at days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the cessation of treatment. Goats were weighed on days 0 and 21 post-processing.