1.Degradation of typical antibiotics during human feces aerobic composting under different temperatures.
Shi H1,2,3, Wang XC4,5,6, Li Q1,2,3, Jiang S1,2,3. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Apr 16. [Epub ahead of print]
Four typical antibiotics were added to human feces for aerobic composting using batch reactors with sawdust as the bulk matrix. Under three composting temperatures (room temperature, 35 ± 2 °C and 55 ± 2 °C), decreases in the extractable concentrations of antibiotics in the compost were monitored for 20 days. As a result, the removals of extractable tetracycline and chlortetracycline were found to be more temperature-dependent than the removals of sulfadiazine and ciprofloxacin. However, more than 90 % of all of the extractable antibiotics were removed at 55 ± 2 °C. Three specific experiments were further conducted to identify the possible actions for antibiotic removal, including self-degradation in aqueous solution, composting with a moist sterile sawdust matrix without adding feces and composting with human feces and moist sterile sawdust. As a result, it was found that the removal of tetracycline and chlortetracycline was mainly due to chemical degradation in water, whereas the removal of sulfadiazine was mainly attributed to adsorption onto sawdust particles.
2.The importance of lag time extension in determining bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
Li B1, Qiu Y2, Shi H2, Yin H3. Analyst. 2016 Apr 14. [Epub ahead of print]
It is widely appreciated that widespread antibiotic resistance has significantly reduced the utility of today's antibiotics. Many antibiotics now fail to cure infectious diseases, although they are classified as effective bactericidal agents based on antibiotic susceptibility tests. Here, via kinetic growth assays, we evaluated the effects of 12 commonly used antibiotics on the lag phase of a range of pure environmental isolates and of sludge bacterial communities with a high diversity. We show that an extended lag phase offers bacteria survival advantages and promotes regrowth upon the removal of antibiotics. By utilizing both lag phase extension and IC50, the killing efficiency of an antibiotic on a strain or a community can be easily revealed. Interestingly, for several strains of relevance to endemic nosocomial infections (e.g. Acinetobacter sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and the diverse sludge communities, tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics are most likely to be resisted via extended lag phase.
3.Influence of antibiotic adsorption on biocidal activities of silver nanoparticles.
Khurana C1, Vala AK2, Andhariya N1, Pandey OP1, Chudasama B3. IET Nanobiotechnol. 2016 Apr;10(2):69-74. doi: 10.1049/iet-nbt.2015.0005.
Excessive use of antibiotics has posed two major challenges in public healthcare. One of them is associated with the development of multi-drug resistance while the other one is linked to side effects. In the present investigation, the authors report an innovative approach to tackle the challenges of multi-drug resistance and acute toxicity of antibiotics by using antibiotics adsorbed metal nanoparticles. Monodisperse silver nanoparticles (SNPs) have been synthesised by two-step process. In the first step, SNPs were prepared by chemical reduction of AgNO3 with oleylamine and in the second step, oleylamine capped SNPs were phase-transferred into an aqueous medium by ligand exchange. Antibiotics - tetracycline and kanamycin were further adsorbed on the surface of SNPs. Antibacterial activities of SNPs and antibiotic adsorbed SNPs have been investigated on gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis), and gram-negative (Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas fluorescens) bacterial strains.
4.Helicobacter pylori therapy: a paradigm shift.
Graham DY1, Dore MP1,2. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2016 Apr 14. [Epub ahead of print]
Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) is a leading cause of gastroduodenal disease, including gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication therapies and their efficacy are summarized. A number of current treatment regimens will reliably yield >90% or 95% cure rates with susceptible strains. None has proven to be superior. We show how to predict the efficacy of a regimen in any population provided one knows the prevalence of antibiotic resistance. As with other infectious diseases, therapy should always be susceptibility-based. Susceptibility testing should be demanded. We provide recommendations for empiric therapies when the only option and describe how to distinguish studies providing misinformation from those providing reliable and interpretable data. When treated as an infectious disease, high H. pylori cure rates are relatively simple to reliably achieve.