Rhinovirus is one of the smallest types of virus, with a diameter of around 30 nanometers. Rhinoviruses contain single-stranded positive sense RNA as their genetic material.
An overview of rhinovirus
Rhinovirus (RHV) belongs to the family of small RNA virus, the smallest virus and 27 to 30 nm in diameter. It is a 20 dimensional symmetrical structure and its molecular weight is approximately 8.5x106 Dalton. And the virus core is the single strands of linear RNA, approximately 7500 nucleotides and has a white eggshell without an envelope outside the viral core.
Inhibition of rhinovirus
At present, some new antiviral factors can not only reduce clinical symptoms, but also reduce the incidence of acute otitis media, sinusitis, asthma exacerbation and bronchitis. In addition, they can reduce the incidence of respiratory infections by reducing the transmission of the virus. For example, studies have shown that interferon in the nasal cavity can prevent RHV infection, reduce the virus excretion and alleviate symptoms. Soluble intercellular adhesion factor-1 inhibitors play a role by preventing the combination of the virus and the intercellular adhesion factor-1 on the cell surface, which has a broad spectrum of activity for a variety of major RHV serotypes. Enviroxime is a classical viral RNA replication inhibitor, which is proved to have strong antiviral activity in vitro. 3C protease is a protein-encoded protease of small RNA virus, which plays a key role in virus replication and life cycle and is one of the most important targets of antiviral research at present. AG7088 is currently a representative 3C protease inhibitor with high antiviral activity and low toxicity and is a promising competitive inhibitor of human nasal viral C protease.
Rhinovirus and diseases
Respiratory epithelial cells are the target cells of RHV infection. RHV is combined with the specific receptor of respiratory epithelial cells, namely intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and is reproduced in respiratory epithelial cells and local lymphoid tissues, causing inflammatory response. RHV is combined with ICAM-1 on the surface of the infected cells to cause cell infection in the canyon area. RHV can not only cause common cold, but also cause acute, chronic bronchitis and other respiratory infection diseases, especially the asthma in children.
1. Yang ZY, et al. (2010). Advances in rhinovirus research. Modern Preventive Medicine.