Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is a protein and enzyme that participates in the body's renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis—that mediates extracellular volume (i.e., that of the blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction. Thus, it regulates the body's mean arterial blood pressure. Renin is often improperly referred to as a hormone even though it has no peripheral receptors and rather has an enzymatic activity with which it hydrolyzes angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
An overview of renin
Renin, also called angiotensinase, is a proteolytic enzyme released by the spheres of the glomerulus, and consists of 406 amino acid residues, which comprise 20 front segments of amino acids and 46 back segments of amino acids respectively.
The mature renin contains 340 amino acid residues and has a molecular weight of 37 kD. It is also a component of the renin-angiotensin system. When a lot of blood is lost or blood pressure drops, the system is activated to help regulate the body's long-term blood pressure and extracellular fluid volume (fluid balance).
Inhibition of renin
Aliskiren is the second generation of renin inhibitors and is also a new generation of non-peptide renin blockers. It can block the RAS system in the first link, reduce the renin activity and the production of angiotensin-ll (ANG-ll) and aldosterone, and not affect the metabolism of bradykinin and prostaglandin, playing a role in lowering blood pressure and treating cardiovascular disease. From the current research, Aliskiren is a powerful, highly selective, oral effective and long-acting new generation of antihypertensive drugs. The drug acts on the renin dependence, so increasing the dosage only prolongs the time without causing a sudden drop in blood pressure. Similar to ARB, there is no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions compared to the placebo group.
Renin and diseases
The occurrence of hypertension is related to neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, kidney and other tissues and organs, but the exact mechanism is unknown. It is found that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays an important role in the occurrence and development of hypertension. Moreover, according to blood renin levels and urinary aldosterone levels, hypertension is divided into high renin low blood volume type, low renin high blood volume type, and normal renin normal blood volume type. Different types of hypertension have different characteristics and need to use different methods of treatments
1. Chen JW. (2016). Hypertension can be administered according to renin levels. Family Medicine.