Nucleotides applied on DNA/RNA

2-Hydroxy-dATP
5-Azido-C3-UTP
5-Bromo-dUTP
5-Bromo-UTP
5-DBCO-PEG4-dUTP
8-Oxo-dATP
ATP - lyophilized
ATP - solution

Background


Like proteins, nucleic acids are also biological macromolecules. The molecular mass of nucleic acids is large, typically in the hundreds of thousands to millions. A number of nucleotides are obtained after hydrolysis of the nucleic acid, and experiments have shown that the nucleotide is the basic unit constituting the nucleic acid, that is, the monomer constituting the nucleic acid molecule. A nucleotide molecule is composed of a molecule of a nitrogen-containing base, a molecule of five carbon sugar, and a molecule of phosphoric acid. Nucleotide is the basic building block of nucleic acids. The nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a pentone and a phosphate group. Hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous bases hold the two strands together of the double helix structure. There are five possibilities for nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. Nucleotide is the building block for DNA or RNA. A five-carbon sugar is a deoxyribose sugar called a deoxyribonucleotide (a monomer of DNA), and a five-carbon sugar is a ribonucleotide called a ribonucleotide (a monomer of RNA).

Structure-of-nucleotide Fig1. Structure of nucleotide

Application of Nucleotides on DNA

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid), is a molecule that can form genetic instructions to guide biological development and vital functioning. The main function is long-term information storage, which can be compared to “blueprint” or “recipe”. The instructions contained are construct other compounds in the cell, such as proteins and RNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid fragments with genetic information are called genes. Deoxyribonucleic acid is a long-chain polymer. The constituent units are called nucleotides, and the sugars and phosphate molecules are linked by ester bonds to form their long-chain backbone. Each sugar molecule is connected to one of the four bases. These bases are arranged along a long chain of deoxyribonucleic acids to form a genetic code, which is the basis for the synthesis of protein amino acid sequences. The process of reading a password is called transcription, and a nucleic acid molecule called RNA is reproduced based on the DNA sequence. Most RNAs carry information about synthetic proteins, while others have special functions such as rRNA, snRNA and siRNA. In cells, deoxyribonucleic acid can be organized into a chromosome structure, and the entire group of chromosomes is collectively referred to as the genome. Chromosomes replicate before cell division, a process known as deoxyribonucleic acid replication. For eukaryotes, such as animals, plants and fungi, chromosomes are deposited in the nucleus; for prokaryotes, such as bacteria, are stored in the nucleus of the cytoplasm. Chromatin proteins on chromosomes, such as tissue proteins, organize and compress deoxyribonucleic acid to help DNA interact with other proteins, so as to regulating gene transcription.

Application of Nucleotides on RNA

Ribonucleic acid (abbreviated as RNA), a genetic information carrier found in biological cells and some viruses and viroids. RNA is condensed by a ribonucleotide via a phospholipid bond to grow a chain molecule. A ribonucleotide molecule consists of phosphoric acid, ribose and bases. There are four main bases of RNA, namely A adenine, G guanine, C cytosine, and U uracil, wherein U (uracil) replaces T in DNA. RNA plays an important role in the process of protein synthesis in which ribonucleic acid (tRNA) is used to carry and transfer activated amino acids; messenger ribonucleic acid, abbreviated as mRNA, is a template for synthetic proteins; ribosome ribonucleic acid, abbreviated rRNA is the main site where cells synthesize proteins.

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References:

  1. Sheiness, D., & Bishop, J. M. (1979). DNA and RNA from uninfected vertebrate cells contain nucleotide sequences related to the putative transforming gene of avian myelocytomatosis virus. Journal of virology, 31(2), 514-521.
  2. Peon, J., & Zewail, A. H. (2001). DNA/RNA nucleotides and nucleosides: direct measurement of excited-state lifetimes by femtosecond fluorescence up-conversion. Chemical physics letters, 348(3-4), 255-262.
  3. Di Ventra, M., & Taniguchi, M. (2016). Decoding DNA, RNA and peptides with quantum tunnelling. Nature nanotechnology, 11(2), 117.