An overview of cyclin D1
There are three major subtypes of cyclin D, D1, D2 and D3. Cyclin D1 is most closely related to tumors and is involved in tumor metastasis, and is identified as an oncogene. It is located at 11q13 and is about 15kb long, containing 5 exons and four introns. It has a specific expression in oral cancer. The degree of cyclin D1 expression is related to the severity of the disease, and its expression intensity is different in different tumor stages. Cyclin D1 is a subtype of cyclin that forms a complex with CDK4 or CDK6 and acts as their regulatory subunit. These two cyclin-dependent kinases are essential for G1 to S phase transitions. This protein has been shown to interact with the tumor suppressor protein Rb, and this gene is actively regulated by Rb.
Inhibition of cyclin D1
Cyclin D1 (Cyclin D1) acts as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 and CDK6 (Cyclin D1/CDK4 and Cyclin D1/CDK6) and is required for G1 to S phase transition. CDK4-cyclinD1 inhibitor can inhibit DNA synthesis and cause G1 arrest. It can also block the phosphorylation of pRb protein in tumor cells, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation and anti-tumor effect.
Cyclin D1 and diseases
As one of the cell cycle regulators, cyclin D1 can shorten the cell cycle G1 phase, allow cells to enter S phase in advance, accelerate cell growth, and promote tumor development. Cyclin D1 is required for normal cell division and is overexpressed in patients with oral cancer to promote cancer cell proliferation. There are factors that promote the proliferation of cancer cells in DNA, RNA and translation. Excessive expression of cyclin D1 is found in B-cell lymphomas and common malignant tumors such as the breast and esophagus. Cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Ki-67) play an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in EOC cells, which can cause abnormal cell proliferation and ultimately lead to the occurrence and development of malignant tumors.
Casimiro, M. C., Velasco-Velázquez, M., Aguirre-Alvarado, C., & Pestell, R. G. (2014). Overview of cyclins d1 function in cancer and the cdk inhibitor landscape: past and present. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, 23(3), 295.
Pestell, R. G. (2013). New roles of cyclin d1. American Journal of Pathology, 183(1), 3-9.