In the field of cell biology, fluorescent probe is an important tool to study the structure and function of cells. Using organelle fluorescence probe to selectively combine with organelle, and then observed by laser scanning confocal microscope, we can not only obtain high-clear subcellular structure image, but also dynamically observe the morphological changes of living cells. The pathological and physiological changes of cells can be quantitatively studied at the level of molecular biology by means of fluorescence multiple staining, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. It can also be used to analyze cell energy metabolism, signal transduction, changes of membrane potential, apoptosis and differentiation of cell types.
Below is a list of our available Fluorescence probe for cell structure and organelle (include but not limited to the following):
The nuclear structure can be selectively observed by nucleoprotein staining or direct staining of nucleic acid. The cellular permeability nucleic acid dye we provide can directly dye living cells or tissues to mark the distribution of cells in tissues. The nuclear changes during the whole process from mitosis to apoptosis were followed.
The cytoplasm is composed of cytoplasmic matrix, intimal system, cytoskeleton and inclusion, which is the main place of life activities. Lipophilic dyes can generally be used as plasma film dyes, but they are quickly internalized, so they are used for imaging for a very short period of time. Although there are differences in plasma membrane staining among different cell types, fluorescent labeled lectins, such as wheat germ lectins, are still widely used.
Mitochondria are the energy factories of cells. Because of its participation in apoptosis, it has also become a hot research topic in recent years. The main fluorescent probes of mitochondria are JC-1, Rhodamine 123 and MitoTracker series probes.
Lysosomes are bodies surrounded by monolayer membrane proteins containing a series of acid hydrolases. Lysosome contains a variety of enzymes, such as glycosidase, acid phosphatase, elastase, cathepsin and so on. Weakly basic amines selectively aggregate in intracellular chambers with low pH value, which can be used to study the biosynthesis and pathogenesis of lysosomes. One of the most commonly used is DAMP, which does not emit fluorescence and needs to be used in conjunction with anti-DNP antibodies to observe staining patterns. Fluorescent probes such as neutral red and acridine orange are also commonly used in the staining of acidic organelles, but they lack specificity.
The function of Golgi complex is to process, concentrate, store and transport proteins from rough endoplasmic reticulum, and finally form secretory vesicles. The fluorescence probes of Golgi complex are mainly NBD C6-Ceramide and BODIPY FL C5-Ceramide.
The commonly used DiOC6 (3) and similar DiOC5 (3) belong to short-chain carbonyl cyanine dyes, which are widely used in the study of endoplasmic reticulum, including the structural function and kinetics of endoplasmic reticulum in neurons and yeast. And the morphological relationship among endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and microtubules in different cell types.
1. Zhu, H., Fan, J., Du, J., & Peng, X. (2016). Fluorescent probes for sensing and imaging within specific cellular organelles. Accounts of chemical research, 49(10), 2115-2126.
2. Zhang, J., Campbell, R. E., Ting, A. Y., & Tsien, R. Y. (2002). Creating new fluorescent probes for cell biology. Nature reviews Molecular cell biology, 3(12), 906.