Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells. It is the most polyphyletic known enzyme: six distinct classes have been described, all catalyzing the same reaction but representing unrelated gene families with no known sequence or structural homology. The best known class of adenylyl cyclases is class III or AC-III (Roman numerals are used for classes). AC-III occurs widely in eukaryotes and has important roles in many human tissues.
An Overview of Adenylate Cyclase
Adenylate cyclase was composed of at least three components: excitin-receptor, catalyzed subunit and guanosine acid knockout protein. They are located on the cell membrane and are single protein matter fractionated bodies, which are encoded by different genes. After the corresponding acceptor junctions of different excitins, adenylate cyclase activation or inhibition can be induced. As a key signal molecule downstream of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCRs), adenylate cyclase participates in many physiological and pathological processes. On the one hand, adenylate cyclase can induce protein phosphorylation through PKA and so on, and can also induce protein interaction by non phosphorylation. On the other hand, a large number of phosphodiesterase and adenylate cyclase subtypes, and their differential expression in the cell membrane microregion, lead to a variety of potential regulations of cAMP synthesis and the existence of degradation factors.
Inhibition of Adenylate Cyclase
In recent years, many adenylate cyclase agonists have been used in clinical practice, among which forskolin is an effective activator of adenylate cyclase, which binds to type I adenylate cyclase and activates type I adenylate cyclase. α-Melanocyte-Stimating Hormone (MSH), amide stimulated melanin 1 receptor also induced adenylate cyclase activation. In addition, small cardioactive peptide B (SCPB) is a neuroactive peptide that stimulates the adenylate cyclase activity in the granular components of heart and Gill tissues.
Adenylate Cyclase and Diseases
The mechanism by which adenylate cyclase and receptors are used may be used to protect against certain diseases. Pseudothyroid hypothyroidism (PsHPI type) has indeed been diagnosed with guanosine acid-modulated protein deficiency. In the study of the pathogenesis of tumorigenesis, the ras base product P21 protein has binding GTP and GTP activities. Therefore, P21 protein was similar to guanosine monophosphate in regulating cAMP level, which interfered with the transmembrane transmission of positive information, causing the cell to grow out of tune. To further strengthen the study of the mechanism of action of adenylate cyclase may provide a new method for the treatment of cancer and other diseases.
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