Succinic acid - CAS 110-15-6
Catalog number: 110-15-6
Not Intended for Therapeutic Use. For research use only.
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Succinic acid isolated from the rhizome of Gastrodia elata.
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1.Thermodynamics of enzyme-catalyzed esterifications: I. Succinic acid esterification with ethanol.
Altuntepe E;Greinert T;Hartmann F;Reinhardt A;Sadowski G;Held C Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017 Aug;101(15):5973-5984. doi: 10.1007/s00253-017-8287-4. Epub 2017 May 12.
Succinic acid (SA) was esterified with ethanol using Candida antarctica lipase B immobilized on acrylic resin at 40 and 50 °C. Enzyme activity in the reaction medium was assured prior to reaction experiments. Reaction-equilibrium experiments were performed for varying initial molalities of SA and water in the reaction mixtures. This allowed calculating the molality-based apparent equilibrium constant K ;m; as function of concentration and temperature. K ;m; was shown to depend strongly on the molality of water and SA as well as on temperature. It could be concluded that increasing the molality of SA shifted the reaction equilibrium towards the products. Water had a strong effect on the activity of the enzyme and on K ;m; . The concentration dependence of K ;m; values was explained by the activity coefficients of the reacting agents. These were predicted with the thermodynamic models Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT), NRTL, and Universal Quasichemical Functional Group Activity Coefficients (UNIFAC), yielding the ratio of activity coefficients of products and reactants K ;γ; . All model parameters were taken from literature. The models yielded K ;γ; values between 25 and 115.
2.Oxygen-dependence of mitochondrial ROS production as detected by Amplex Red assay.
Grivennikova VG;Kareyeva AV;Vinogradov AD Redox Biol. 2018 Jul;17:192-199. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2018.04.014. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
The initial rates of superoxide plus hydrogen peroxide (ROS) generation by intact or permeabilized rat heart mitochondria and coupled inside-out bovine heart submitochondrial particles (SMP) oxidizing NAD-dependent substrates, NADH, and succinate were measured by detecting resorufin formation in the Amplex Red assay at various oxygen concentrations. Linear dependences of the initial rates on oxygen concentration within the range of ~125-750 μM were found for all significant mitochondrial generators, i.e. the respiratory complexes and ammonium-stimulated dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. At lower oxygen concentrations upon its decrease from air saturation level to zero, the time-course of resorufin formation by SMP catalyzing coupled oxidation of succinate (the total ROS production by respiratory complexes II and III and by the reverse electron transfer (RET)-mediated by complex I) also corresponds to the linear dependence on oxygen with the same first-order rate constant determined in the initial rate studies. Prolonged incubation of SMP generating succinate-supported complex I-mediated ROS affected neither their NADH oxidase nor ROS generating activity. In contrast to SMP significant deviation from the first-order oxygen dependence in the time-course kinetics during coupled oxidation of succinate by intact mitochondria was evident.
3.High yield production of four-carbon dicarboxylic acids by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.
Martinez I;Gao H;Bennett GN;San KY J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018 Jan;45(1):53-60. doi: 10.1007/s10295-017-1991-3. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
Several metabolic engineered Escherichia coli strains were constructed and evaluated for four-carbon dicarboxylic acid production. Fumarase A, fumarase B and fumarase C single, double and triple mutants were constructed in a ldhA adhE mutant background overexpressing the pyruvate carboxylase from Lactococcus lactis. All the mutants produced succinate as the main four-carbon (C4) dicarboxylic acid product when glucose was used as carbon source with the exception of the fumAC and the triple fumB fumAC deletion strains, where malate was the main C4-product with a yield of 0.61-0.67 mol (mole glucose);-1;. Additionally, a mdh mutant strain and a previously engineered high-succinate-producing strain (SBS550MG-Cms pHL413-Km) were investigated for aerobic malate production from succinate. These strains produced 40.38 mM (5.41 g/L) and 50.34 mM (6.75 g/L) malate with a molar yield of 0.53 and 0.55 mol (mole succinate);-1;, respectively. Finally, by exploiting the high-succinate production capability, the strain SBS550MG-Cms243 pHL413-Km showed significant malate production in a two-stage process from glucose. This strain produced 133 mM (17.83 g/L) malate in 47 h, with a high yield of 1.3 mol (mole glucose);-1; and productivity of 0.
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CAS 110-15-6 Succinic acid

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