1.Effects of the Intake of Sesame Seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) and Derivatives on Oxidative Stress: A Systematic Review.
Vittori Gouveia Lde A1, Cardoso CA2, de Oliveira GM2, Rosa G3, Moreira AS4,5. J Med Food. 2016 Apr;19(4):337-45. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2015.0075.
This study is aimed at assessing the scientific evidence on the effect of the intake of sesame seeds and derivatives on oxidative stress of individuals with systemic hypertension, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review was conducted in seven databases (Lilacs, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Trip Database, and Scielo) from September 2013 to January 2014. Clinical trials on the intake of sesame seeds and derivatives assessing the outcomes related to oxidative stress were retrieved. The risk of bias in the results of the studies selected was assessed according to the criteria of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. This review included seven clinical trials showing that the intake of sesame resulted in the increase in enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, as well as in a reduction in oxidative stress markers. This was mainly observed with the use of sesame oil for hypertensive individuals during 2 months and black sesame meal capsules for prehypertensive individuals during four weeks.
2.Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses.
Abou Rajab Y1, Leuschner C1, Barus H2, Tjoa A2, Hertel D1. PLoS One. 2016 Feb 29;11(2):e0149949. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149949. eCollection 2016.
One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species) in Sulawesi (Indonesia) with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground) increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1), total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.
3.Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea.
Pattanittum P1, Kunyanone N, Brown J, Sangkomkamhang US, Barnes J, Seyfoddin V, Marjoribanks J. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Mar 22;3:CD002124. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002124.pub2.
BACKGROUND: Dysmenorrhoea refers to painful menstrual cramps and is a common gynaecological complaint. Conventional treatments include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), which both reduce myometrial activity (contractions of the uterus). A suggested alternative approach is dietary supplements. We used the term 'dietary supplement' to include herbs or other botanical, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and amino acids. We excluded traditional Chinese medicines.
4.Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid increment hepatic n-3 LCPUFA, modulating the fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant response in rats.
Rincón-Cervera MÁ1, Valenzuela R2, Hernandez-Rodas MC3, Barrera C3, Espinosa A4, Marambio M3, Valenzuela A5. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2016 Feb 17. pii: S0952-3278(16)30002-3. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2016.02.002. [Epub ahead of print]
Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the metabolic precursor of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from the n-3 family with relevant physiological and metabolic roles: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). Western diet lacks of suitable intake of n-3 LCPUFA and there are recommendations to increase the dietary supply of such nutrients. Seed oils rich in ALA such as those from rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubis) and chia (Salvia hispanica) may constitute an alternative that merits research. This study evaluated hepatic and epididymal accretion and biosynthesis of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, the expression and DNA-binding activity of PPAR-α and SREBP-1c, oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in rats fed sunflower oil (SFO, 1% ALA) as control group, canola oil (CO, 10% ALA), rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, 33% ALA), sacha inchi oil (SIO, 49% ALA) and chia oil (ChO, 64% ALA) as single lipid source.