1.High speed X-ray analysis of plant enzymes at room temperature.
Xia L1, Rajendran C, Ruppert M, Panjikar S, Wang M, Stoeckigt J. Phytochemistry. 2013 Jul;91:88-92. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2012.05.009. Epub 2012 Jun 14.
X-ray measurements at room temperature (295 K) deliver high quality data sets with unprecedented speed (<2 min), as shown for crystallized raucaffricine-O-β-D-glucosidase (RG), its mutant RG-Glu186Gln and several ligand complexes of the enzyme which participates in alkaloid biosynthesis in the plant Rauvolfia. The data obtained are compared with data sets measured under typical cryo conditions (100K). Under both conditions, density maps are highly comparable and favor the described protocol for room temperature measurements, potentially paving the way for future crystallographic studies capturing biosynthetic pathway intermediates.
2.Structures of alkaloid biosynthetic glucosidases decode substrate specificity.
Xia L1, Ruppert M, Wang M, Panjikar S, Lin H, Rajendran C, Barleben L, Stöckigt J. ACS Chem Biol. 2012 Jan 20;7(1):226-34. doi: 10.1021/cb200267w. Epub 2011 Oct 28.
Two similar enzymes with different biosynthetic function in one species have evolved to catalyze two distinct reactions. X-ray structures of both enzymes help reveal their most important differences. The Rauvolfia alkaloid biosynthetic network harbors two O-glucosidases: raucaffricine glucosidase (RG), which hydrolyses raucaffricine to an intermediate downstream in the ajmaline pathway, and strictosidine glucosidase (SG), which operates upstream. RG converts strictosidine, the substrate of SG, but SG does not accept raucaffricine. Now elucidation of crystal structures of RG, inactive RG-E186Q mutant, and its complexes with ligands dihydro-raucaffricine and secologanin reveals that it is the "wider gate" of RG that allows strictosidine to enter the catalytic site, whereas the "slot-like" entrance of SG prohibits access by raucaffricine. Trp392 in RG and Trp388 in SG control the gate shape and acceptance of substrates. Ser390 directs the conformation of Trp392.
3.Purification, partial amino acid sequence and structure of the product of raucaffricine-O-beta-D-glucosidase from plant cell cultures of Rauwolfia serpentina.
Warzecha H1, Obitz P, Stöckigt J. Phytochemistry. 1999 Apr;50(7):1099-109.
Plant cell suspension cultures of Rauwolfia produce within 1 week approximately 250 nkat/l of raucaffricine-O-beta-D-glucosidase. A five step procedure using anion exchange chromatography, chromatography on hydroxylapatite, gel filtration and FPLC-chromatography on Mono Q and Mono P delivered in a yield of 0.9% approximately 1200-fold enriched glucosidase. A short protocol employing DEAE sepharose, TSK 55 S gel chromatography and purification on Mono Q gave a 5% recovery of glucosidase which was 340-fold enriched. SDS-PAGE showed a Mr for the enzyme of 61 kDa. The enzyme is not glycosylated. Structural investigation of the enzyme product, vomilenine, demonstrated that the alkaloid exists in aqueous solutions in an equilibrium of 21(R)- and 21(S)-vomilenine in a ratio of 3.4:1. Proteolysis of the pure enzyme with endoproteinase Lys C revealed six peptide fragments with 6-24 amino acids which were sequenced. The two largest fragments showed sequences, of which the motif Val-Thr-Glu-Asn-Gly is typical for beta-glucosidases.
4.Molecular cloning and functional bacterial expression of a plant glucosidase specifically involved in alkaloid biosynthesis.
Warzecha H1, Gerasimenko I, Kutchan TM, Stöckigt J. Phytochemistry. 2000 Aug;54(7):657-66.
Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids are a vast and structurally complex group of plant secondary compounds. In contrast to other groups of plant products which produce many glycosides, indole alkaloids rarely occur as glucosides. Plants of Rauvolfia serpentina accumulate ajmaline as a major alkaloid, whereas cell suspension cultures of Rauvolfia mainly accumulate the glucoalkaloid raucaffricine at levels of 1.6 g/l. Cell cultures do contain a specific glucosidase. known as raucaffricine-O-beta-D-glucosidase (RG), which catalyzes the in vitro formation of vomilenine, a direct intermediate in ajmaline biosynthesis. Here, we describe the molecular cloning and functional expression of this enzyme in Escherichia coli. RG shows up to 60% amino acid identity with other glucosidases of plant origin and it shares several sequence motifs with family 1 glucosidases which have been characterized. The best substrate specificity for recombinant RG was raucaffricine (KM 1.