Pyridostigmine bromide - CAS 101-26-8
Catalog number: 101-26-8
Category: Inhibitor
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Molecular Weight:
Pyridostigmine is a parasympathomimetic and a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor.
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1. Binding of pyridostigmine bromide, N,N -diethyl-m-toluamide and permethrin, alone and in combinations, to human serum albumin
Aqel W. Abu-Qare, Mohamed B. Abou-Donia. Arch Toxicol (2002) 76: 203–208
Pyridostigmine bromide (PB, 3,3-dimethylaminocar-bonyloxy-N-methylpyridiniyum bromide) is used for treatment of myasthenia gravis (Flacke 1973; BreyerPfaff et al. 1985; Aquilnonius and Hartvig 1986), and as prophylactic drug to protect against nerve agents (Keeler et al. 1991; Young and Evans 1998). PB inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) enzymes in hens and rats (Abou-Donia et al. 1996), and BuChE in mice (Somani et al. 2000). DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is applied as an insect repellent (Robinson and Cherniak 1986; Brown and Hebert 1997). Previous studies have shown that, in laboratory animals, DEET has direct effect on the nervous system that causes spongiform myelinopathy in the brain stem with signs of ataxia, seizures, coma and death (Verschoyle et al. 1990). Furthermore, extensive and repeated topical application of DEET resulted in human poisoning, including two deaths (Roland et al. 1985; Edwards and Johnson 1987). Permethrin is an insecticide effective in the control of mites and head lice (Miller 1989; Burgess et al. 1992; Fraser 1994). It modifies the sodium channel to open longer during a depolarization pulse (Narahashi 1985). Combined exposure to PB, DEET and permethrin enhanced neurotoxicity in hens and rats (Abou-Donia et al. 1996), increased mortality in rats (McCain et al. 1997), produced behavioral alterations in male rats (Abou-Donia 2001; Hoy et al. 2000), and increased urinary excretion of 3-nitrotyrosine, a marker of oxidative stress in rats (Abu-Qare et al. 2001). Published reports implicated exposure to PB, DEET and permethrin in Veterans Gulf War illnesses (Abou-Donia et al. 1996; Olson et al. 1998; Kurt 1998; Shen 1998; Wilson et al. 1998).
2. Physiological and performance effects of pyridostigmine bromide in healthy volunteers: a dose-response study
Mary R. Cook • Charles Graham • Antonio Sastre, Mary M. Gerkovich. Psychopharmacology (2002) 162:186–192
Pyridostigmine bromide (PB), a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor, is used worldwide for the chronic treatment of myasthenia gravis at doses of 360 mg/day to more than 1400 mg/day (Drachman 1998). Low-dose regimens (30 mg PB every 8 h) have become an important part of the US military prophylactic defense against exposure to organophosphate chemical warfare agents. Field use of low-dose PB is based on studies of efficacy in animals, and on studies of safety in humans (Dirnhuber et al. 1979; Gall 1981). Most human laboratory studies report few, if any, performance decrements or adverse effects associated with oral administration of PB at the 30 mg dose (Graham and Cook 1984; Borland et al. 1985; Gawron et al. 1990). Recently, questions have been raised and hypotheses have been formulated about a possible role of PB in the etiology of Gulf War Veterans’ illnesses (GWI), singly or combined with insecticides and/or other chemical, immunological or stress factors (Golomb 1999).
3. Eudragit RS PO nanoparticles for sustained release of pyridostigmine bromide
Fatemeh Hoobakht • Fariba Ganji • Ebrahim Vasheghani-Farahani • Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi. J Nanopart Res (2013) 15:1912
The nerve agents (NAs) used in chemical attacks cause disturbance to the synapse activity (Huang et al. 2007a). Soman is one of the strongest of these NAs and treating Soman poisoning is difficult and dependent on timing (Huang et al. 2007b). Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) has some properties such as high-aqueous solubility, deliquescent in nature, short elimination half-life (1–2 h), and some health-related side effects. PB has also been used to treat a neuromuscular transmission disease called myasthenia gravis. The Food and Drug Administration has approved PB as a pretreatment drug against the effects of neural toxicity to increase survival rates after exposure to Soman. PB may also be used for treating abdominal surgery, flatulence and urinary retention (Tan et al. 2012a).
4. Role of a Novel Pyridostigmine Bromide-Phospholipid Nanocomplex in Improving Oral Bioavailability
Qun-you Tan*, Ni-ni Hu*, Jing-qing Zhang*. Arch Pharm Res Vol 35, No 3, 499-508, 2012
Pyridostigmine bromide (PB; C9H13BrN2O2; MW 261.12; Fig. 1), a quaternary ammonium compound, acts as a competitive reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase and prolongs the hydrolysis of endogenous acetylcholine. PB is used for the symptomatic treatment of myasthenia gravis and antagonism of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers. PB may also be used to treat abdominal surgery flatulence and urinary retention (Zhao et al., 2006; Barak et al., 2009). However, the clinical usage of PB has been hampered by poor oral bioavailability. The low bioavailability (10% to 20%) may be due to the slight liposolubility and poor permeability and intestinal absorption of PB.
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CAS 101-26-8 Pyridostigmine bromide

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