Propylparaben - CAS 94-13-3
Molecular Formula:
Molecular Weight:
Propylparaben is used as an antimicrobial agent.
White to Off-White Solid
Propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate
Soluble in DMSO (slightly), methanol (slightly).
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1.The Effect of Commonly Used Excipients on the Epithelial Integrity of Human Cervicovaginal Tissue.
Hu M;Zhou T;Dezzutti CS;Rohan LC AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2016 Oct/Nov;32(10-11):992-1004.
Pharmaceutical excipients are widely used in vaginal drug products. The epithelial integrity of the cervicovaginal tissue is important for HIV-1 prevention. However, the effects of excipients on cervicovaginal epithelium remain unknown. This study aims at assessing the effects of vaginal product excipients on the integrity of human cervicovaginal epithelium and on a lead HIV prevention antiretroviral drug, tenofovir (TFV). In the current study, nine excipients commonly used in vaginal formulations were incubated for 6 h with excised human ectocervical tissue. The effects of the excipients were examined by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), epithelial morphology, paracellular/transcellular permeability, and cell viability. The efficacy of TFV for preventing HIV-1 infection in the ex vivo cultured ectocervix was also tested. We found that disodium ethyl-enediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), sorbic acid, and benzoic acid had no effect on the tissue TEER. Butylated hydroxyanisole, glycerin, propylene glycol, methylparaben, and propylparaben slightly to moderately decreased tissue TEER, whereas citric acid significantly decreased the TEER in a time-dependent manner. Tissue morphology observed post-exposure strongly correlated with TEER data; however, a less strong correlation was observed between paracellular permeability and TEER data after exposure to different excipients.
2.Morphometric analysis of mice uteri treated with the preservatives methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butylparaben.
Lemini C;Hernández A;Jaimez R;Franco Y;Avila ME;Castell A Toxicol Ind Health. 2004 Sep;20(6-10):123-32.
The alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) known as parabens (Pbens) are widely used as preservatives in food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Several in vivo and in vitro studies have shown these compounds to be estrogenic. Here, for the first time, we present evidence of their estrogenicity using a morphometric analysis of uteri from mice treated with the preservatives methylparaben (MePben), ethylparaben (EtPben), propylparaben (PrPben), and butylparaben (BuPben) compared with estradiol (E2). Different groups of adult ovariectomized (Ovx) CD1 mice were subcutaneously (sc) treated daily for three days with two different equimolar doses (362 and 1086 micromol/kg) of the Pbens: MePben (55 and 165 mg/kg), EtPben (60 and 180 mg/kg), PrPben (65 and 195 mg/kg), BuPben (70 and 210 mg/kg), E2 (10 microg/kg; 0.036 micromol/kg), and vehicle (propyleneglycol; V, 10 mL/kg). On the fourth day, uteri were dissected, blotted, weighed, and placed in a fixative solution for 24 h. The paraffin embeded uteri were cut to obtain 7 microm thick transversal sections. Luminal epithelium heights (LEH), glandular epithelium heights (GEH), and myometrium widths (MW) were measured. The highest Pbens dose was able to produce uterotrophic effects (38 to 76%) compared to E2 efects (100%).
3.Differential effect of methyl-, butyl- and propylparaben and 17β-estradiol on selected cell cycle and apoptosis gene and protein expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A non-malignant cells.
Wróbel AM;Gregoraszczuk EŁ J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Sep;34(9):1041-50. doi: 10.1002/jat.2978. Epub 2014 Jan 30.
Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid used widely as antimicrobial preservatives in consumer products, including pharmaceuticals, foods and cosmetics. We showed previously that methyl-, butyl- and propylparaben parabens, even at low doses, stimulate the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and non-transformed MCF-10A breast epithelial cells. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this represents a direct effect on cell cycle and apoptotic gene expression. MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells were exposed to methyl, butyl- and propylparaben (20 nm) or 17β-estradiol (10 nm). Cell cycle and apoptotic gene expression were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and protein expression by Western blot. 17β-estradiol upregulated G1 /S phase genes and downregulated cell cycle progression inhibitors in both MCF-7 and MCF-10A. Upregulation of Bcl-xL and downregulation of caspase 9 was observed in MCF-7, while upregulation of Bcl-xL, BCL2L2 and caspase 9 was noted in MCF-10A. Cyclins in MCF-7 cells were not affected by any of the parabens. Methyl- and butylparaben had no effect on the expression of selected apoptotic genes in MCF-7. In MCF-10A, all parabens tested increased the expression of G1 /S phase genes, and downregulated cell cycle inhibitors.
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CAS 94-13-3 Propylparaben

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