1.Comparison of four different permitting and combination of two best cryoprotectants on freezing Nguni sperm evaluated with the aid of computer aided sperm analysis.
Seshoka MM1, Mphaphathi ML2, Nedambale TL3. Cryobiology. 2016 Apr 5. pii: S0011-2240(16)30039-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2016.04.001. [Epub ahead of print]
Cryopreservation has been reported to damage approximately 40-50% of viable sperm in bull semen. The present study was undertaken to assess the cryo-effectiveness of glycerol (GLY), ethylene glycol (EG), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and propylene glycol (PND) as cryoprotectant during the cryopreservation of Nguni bull semen. Semen was collected from 18 Nguni bulls and evaluated macroscopically and microscopically for sperm parameters. Thereafter, the semen samples were diluted with egg-yolk citrate extender supplemented with either 12% GLY or DMSO or EG or PND cryoprotectant. Semen samples were loaded into straws and placed into a controlled rate programmable freezer and stored in a liquid nitrogen tank. Following semen thawing, artificial insemination (AI) was done on synchronized Nguni cows. The in vitro fertilization (IVF) was conducted on cow's oocytes to test the fertilizing ability. Data was analyzed with the aid of ANOVA. A significant difference (p < 0.
2.Fermentative production of 1-propanol from d-glucose, l-rhamnose and glycerol using recombinant Escherichia coli.
Matsubara M1, Urano N1, Yamada S1, Narutaki A1, Fujii M1, Kataoka M2. J Biosci Bioeng. 2016 Apr 9. pii: S1389-1723(16)30033-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2016.03.011. [Epub ahead of print]
Fermentative production of 1-propanol, which is one of the promising precursors of polypropylene production, from d-glucose, l-rhamnose and glycerol using metabolically engineered Escherichia coli was examined. To confer the ability to produce 1-propanol from 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) in recombinant E. coli, a part of the pdu regulon including the diol dehydratase and the propanol dehydrogenase genes together with the adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) regeneration enzyme genes of Klebsiella pneumoniae was cloned, and an expression vector for these genes (pRSF_pduCDEGHOQS) was constructed. Recombinant E. coli harboring pRSF_pduCDEGHOQS with 1,2-PD synthetic pathway (pKK_mde) genes, which was constructed in our previous report (Urano et al., Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 99, 2001-2008, 2015), produced 16.1 mM of 1-propanol from d-glucose with a molar yield of 0.36 mol/mol after 72 h cultivation. 29.9 mM of 1-propanol was formed from l-rhamnose with a molar yield of 0.
3.Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages.
Lauterstein DE1, Tijerina PB2, Corbett K3, Akgol Oksuz B4, Shen SS5,6,7, Gordon T8, Klein CB9, Zelikoff JT10. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Apr 12;13(4). pii: E417. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13040417.
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13-16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4-6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq).
4.Santosomes as natural and efficient carriers for the improvement of phycocyanin reepithelising ability in vitro and in vivo.
Castangia I1, Manca ML2, Caddeo C1, Bacchetta G3, Pons R4, Demurtas D5, Diez-Sales O6, Fadda AM1, Manconi M1. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2016 Apr 1. pii: S0939-6411(16)30123-0. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2016.03.033. [Epub ahead of print]
New biocarriers, named santosomes, were formulated using Santolina insularis essential oil and hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine. They were modified by adding propylene glycol, a hydrophylic penetration enhancer, and loaded with phycocyanin, a protein found in cyanobacteria, which possesses antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. The essential oil was expected to modify the bilayer structure and improve the delivery and efficacy of the protein due to a synergistic effect of the phospholipid and Santolina insularis terpenes. Santosomes were small in size (∼118 nm), unilamellar and with polyhedral shape. SAXS patterns showed that phycocyanin strongly interacted with the polar heads of the vesicle bilayer. Phycocyanin-loaded vesicles did not show any toxic effect in vitro: cell viability was ∼100% in endothelial cells and ∼120% in keratinocytes, at all the concentrations tested. In addition, phycocyanin-loaded vesicles protected the cells against free radical damage.