1.Optimization of amino acid-stabilized erythropoietin parenteral formulation: In vitro and in vivo assessment.
Fayed BE, Tawfik AF, Yassin AE. Acta Pharm. 2016 Mar 1;66(1):69-82. doi: 10.1515/acph-2016-0007.
The aim of this study was to optimize the formulation of erythropoietin (EPO) using amino acids instead of human serum albumin (HSA) and to evaluate its in vivo stability in order to avoid the risk of viral contamination and antigenicity. Different EPO formulations were developed in such a way as to allow studying the effects of amino acids and surfactants on the EPO stability profile. The main techniques applied for EPO analysis were ELISA, Bradford method, and SDS gel electrophoresis. The in vivo stability was evaluated in a Balb-c mouse animal model. The results showed that the presence of surfactant was very useful in preventing the initial adsorption of EPO on the walls of vials and in minimizing protein aggregation. Amino acid combinations, glycine with glutamic acid, provided maximum stability. Formulation F4 (containing glycine, glutamic acid and Tween 20) showed minimum aggregation and degradation and in vivo activity equivalent to commercially available HSA-stabilized EPO (Eprex®).
2.Erectogenic and Aphrodisiac Property of Moringa oleifera: Involvement of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Enzyme.
Goswami SK1, Inamdar MN1, Dethe SM2, Gururaj GM2, Jamwal R2, Bhaskar A2, Mundkinajeddu D2, Agarwal A2. Phytother Res. 2016 Mar 28. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5614. [Epub ahead of print]
Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors have been reported to improve penile erection; therefore, sEH could be useful for management of erectile dysfunction. Methanolic and aqueous extracts of 30 Indian medicinal plants were screened for their sEH inhibition potential. Fifteen extracts showed >50% inhibition when screened at 50 µg/mL in sEH inhibition assay. Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) seeds (MEMO) was most potent with IC50 1.7 ± 0.1 µg/mL and was selected for in vitro studies on isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and in vivo sexual behaviour studies on healthy and diabetic rats. Rats were divided into five groups, each containing six animals and treated orally with either water, vehicle (1% Tween-20), MEMO (45 and 90 mg/kg/day for 21 days), and standard drug, sildenafil (5 mg/kg/day for 7 days). An equal number of female rats were used, and the effect of MEMO and sildenafil was compared with that of vehicle.
3.Modulation of intestinal calcium and phosphate transport in young goats fed a nitrogen- and/or calcium-reduced diet.
Elfers K1, Wilkens MR1, Breves G1, Muscher-Banse AS1. Br J Nutr. 2015 Dec 28;114(12):1949-64. doi: 10.1017/S000711451500375X. Epub 2015 Oct 7.
Feeding ruminants a reduced N diet is a common approach to reduce N output based on rumino-hepatic circulation. However, a reduction in N intake caused massive changes in Ca and inorganic phosphate (Pi) homoeostasis in goats. Although a single dietary Ca reduction stimulated intestinal Ca absorption in a calcitriol-dependent manner, a concomitant reduction of Ca and N supply led to a decrease in calcitriol, and therefore a modulation of intestinal Ca and Pi absorption. The aim of this study was to examine the potential effects of dietary N or Ca reduction separately on intestinal Ca and Pi transport in young goats. Animals were allocated to a control, N-reduced, Ca-reduced or combined N- and Ca-reduced diet for about 6-8 weeks, whereby N content was reduced by 25 % compared with recommendations. In Ussing chamber experiments, intestinal Ca flux rates significantly decreased in goats fed a reduced N diet, whereas Pi flux rates were unaffected.
4.Direct-to-PCR tissue preservation for DNA profiling.
Sorensen A1, Berry C1, Bruce D1, Gahan ME1, Hughes-Stamm S1, McNevin D2. Int J Legal Med. 2016 May;130(3):607-13. doi: 10.1007/s00414-015-1286-z. Epub 2015 Nov 3.
Disaster victim identification (DVI) often occurs in remote locations with extremes of temperatures and humidities. Access to mortuary facilities and refrigeration are not always available. An effective and robust DNA sampling and preservation procedure would increase the probability of successful DNA profiling and allow faster repatriation of bodies and body parts. If the act of tissue preservation also released DNA into solution, ready for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the DVI process could be further streamlined. In this study, we explored the possibility of obtaining DNA profiles without DNA extraction, by adding aliquots of preservative solutions surrounding fresh human muscle and decomposing human muscle and skin tissue samples directly to PCR. The preservatives consisted of two custom preparations and two proprietary solutions. The custom preparations were a salt-saturated solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) and TENT buffer (Tris, EDTA, NaCl, Tween 20).