1. Effects of Topical Phenylephrine on Blood Flow in the Posterior Segments of Monkey and Aged Human Eyes
Jun Takayama,Asuka Mishima, and Kiyoshi Ishii. Jpn J Ophthalmol 2004;48:243–248
IOP was measured using a calibrated Goldmann applanation tonometer. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured in the forearm with an automatic sphygmomanometer (ES-H51, Terumo, Tokyo, Japan). The subjects received a topical instillation of 30µl of 5%phenylephrine hydrochloride in one randomly chosen eye and 30µl of physiologic saline in the other eye, four times at 30-min intervals. Prior to the ﬁrst instillation and 30min after the last instillation, blood pressure, pulse rate, IOP, and CDI measurements were sequentially obtained.
2. Quantitative Analysis of the Maksikold Multicomponent Anticatarrhal Preparation by pH-Gradient High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
G. B. Golubitskii, A. V. Ivanov, E. M. Basova, and V. M. Ivanov. Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 2007, Vol. 62, No. 9, pp. 875–877.
Three active substances-paracetamol, ascorbic acid, and phenylephrine hydrochloride-are included in the composition of the Maksikold granulated powder with an anticatarrhal effect. In spite of a relatively low number of components, the analysis of this preparation is difﬁcult because of the presence of concomitant substances. For this reason, the developers of the technology and regulatory requirements have suggested a procedure including the iodometric determination of ascorbic acid and the determination of paracetamol and phenylephrine hydrochloride by ion-pair HPLC. This procedure is not optimal in the control of large-scale products because it is cumbersome and expensive.
3. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric and Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide, Phenylephrine Hydrochloride, and Carbinoxamine Maleate in Pharmaceutical Preparations
Ismail Murat Palabiyik and Feyyaz Onur. Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 2012, Vol. 67, No. 1, pp. 56–63
Dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DEX), (+)-3-methoxy-9a-methylmorphinan hydrobromide monohydrate (Fig. 1a), is employed as an antitussive agent. It controls cough spasms by depressing the cough center in the medulla. Phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHEN), (S)-1-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylamino-ethanol hydrochloride (Fig. 1b), is used to maintain blood pressure and as a nasal, scleroconjunctival and uveal decongestant. It is also used as a mydriatic agent to promote aqueous humor outflow in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. Carbinoxamine maleate (CAR), 2-[(4-chlorophenyl)-2-pyridinylmethoxyl]-N,N-dimethyl-(Z)-2-butenedioate (Fig. 1c) is a histamine-H1 blocking agent with effective anticholinergic properties. The ternary mixture of these drugs is widely used in the treatment of diseases accompanied by cough and other allergic indications such as the common cold and other viral infections, as a decongestant, antihistaminic, and antitussive.