1.Influence of medium composition on penicillin V production in a stirred tank reactor.
Möller J1, Niehoff J, Dors M, Hiddessen R, Schügerl K. J Biotechnol. 1992 Sep;25(3):245-59.
Penicillin production with a high-producing strain Penicillium chrysogenum was investigated under well-controlled conditions in a stirred tank reactor with complex media containing lard oil and lactose on the one hand, and lactose on the other hand. With lard oil, cell growth and product formation rates were higher, and the production time was shorter by 40 h than without lard oil. On account of the longer production time without lard oil, the amount of beta-lactam compounds was higher (29.93 g l-1), but the mole fraction of the decomposed products (penicilloic acid and penilloic acid) was larger (0.282) than the amount of penicillin V (23.25 g l-1) and the decomposed mole fraction (0.0747) with lard oil. The final product concentrations were about the same (20.86 g l-1 or 35,462 IU ml-1 with lard oil, and 20.43 g l-1 or 34510 IU ml-1 without lard oil). The mole fractions of the by-product (p-OH-penicillin V) were 0.0365 and 0.066. The substitution of lard oil with lactose is possible without a considerable reduction of process performance.
2.Degradation of pencillin-V in fermentation media.
Christensen LH1, Nielsen J, Villadsen J. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1994 Jun 20;44(2):165-9.
In Industrial production of penicillin there is a noticeable loss of the product through degradation reactions. It is shown that the degradation of penicillin-V, both in a complex and in a chemically defined medium, can be separated into a phosphate-catalyzed conversion of penicillin-V to penicilloic-V acid, overlaid by at least one other reaction in which penicillin V is degraded to as yet unknown products. Parameter values for the phosphatecatalyzed degradation are found to be independent of the type of fermentation medium. The rate of formation of other degradation products of penicillin-V is found to be significantly higher in a complex fermentation medium with corn-steep liquor in a chemically defined medium. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
3.[Determination of 7 penicilins and penicilloic acids in milk products by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].
Xiao H, Liu H, Yin J, Wu L, Lu B, Li J, Zhen Z. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2015 Jul;44(4):641-6.
OBJECTIVE: A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was established for determination of 7 penicilins (cloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, penicillin V, amoxicillin, penicillin G, ampicillin) and their penicilloic acids (cloxacilloic acid, nafcilloic acid, oxacilloic acid, penicilloic acid V, amoxicilloic acid, penicilloic acid G and ampicilloic acid) in milk products. And the 7 penicilins and penicilloic acids in milk products were surveyed.
4.Determination of penicillin-V in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography and solid-phase extraction.
Krauwinkel WJ1, Volkers-Kamermans NJ. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1996 Apr 26;679(1-2):129-35.
A high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of penicillin-V concentrations between 0.1 and 19 micrograms/ml in human plasma. Penicillin-V was isolated from plasma by solid-phase extraction on a C18/OH cartridge. The extracts were injected onto a reversed-phase HPLC system. A 125 x 4 mm C18 column was used to separate penicillin-V from its main metabolites, 5R- and 5S-penicilloic acid and endogenous compounds. The eluent consisted of 66% 0.02 M phosphoric acid buffer, to which tetrabutylammonium dihydrogenphosphate and 34% acetonitrile were added. The column effluent was monitored by ultraviolet spectrophotometry at 269 nm. Using this method, penicillin-V concentrations in plasma could be determined with an accuracy between -5.4 and 5.2% and a precision between 0.8 and 1.6%. The method has proved to be reliable and was used in bioavailability studies for the development of a new oral penicillin-V formulation.