1.Separation and characterization of mares' milk alpha(s1)-, beta-, kappa-caseins, gamma-casein-like, and proteose peptone component 5-like peptides.
Egito AS1, Miclo L, López C, Adam A, Girardet JM, Gaillard JL. J Dairy Sci. 2002 Apr;85(4):697-706.
The equine alpha(s1)- and beta-caseins (CN) were purified by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and by reversed-phase HPLC. The alpha(s1)-, beta-, and kappa-CN were characterized either by monodimensional urea-PAGE or sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)-PAGE or by bidimensional electrophoresis. Kappa-casein was characterized after electrophoresis by glycoprotein-specific staining. To identify alpha(s1)-CN without ambiguity, internal sequences were determined after trypsin or chymosin digestion of purified alpha(s1)-CN. These sequences, that could be estimated to correspond to 62% of the full protein, presented strong identities with regions of alpha(s1)-CN primary structures of other species. In particular, 51, 48, 43, and 40% identities were obtained with corresponding regions of sow, dromedary, cow, and human alpha(s1)-CN, respectively. On the other hand, trace amounts of equine gamma-CN-like and proteose peptone component 5-like peptides were found in the whole CN.
2.Proteose peptone fraction of bovine milk depressed IgE production in vitro and in vivo.
Ohno F1, Sugahara T, Kanda K, Nishimoto S. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74(7):1332-7. Epub 2010 Jul 7.
Proteose peptone (PP) is a heat-stable and acid-soluble protein in milk whey. We reveal in this study the IgE production-suppressing activity of the PP fraction in bovine milk. The PP fraction suppressed IgE production by human myeloma cell line U266 cells by depressing the IgE mRNA expression. The suppressive activity of the PP fraction was facilitated by trypsin digestion. An oral administration of the PP fraction significantly decreased the levels of total and ovalbumin (OVA)-specific IgE in the serum collected from OVA-sensitized mice. However, the serum levels of other Ig classes in OVA-sensitized mice were not affected by the intake of the PP fraction. The PP fraction suppressed the mRNA expression level of IgE in mice splenocytes collected from OVA-sensitized mice. Moreover, the B cell population in the spleen was decreased, while the T cell population was increased by administering the PP fraction. These results suggest that the PP fraction modified the B/T cell balance.
3.Lactobacillus gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, for growth in milk.
Arakawa K1, Matsunaga K1, Takihiro S1, Moritoki A1, Ryuto S1, Kawai Y2, Masuda T2, Miyamoto T3. J Dairy Sci. 2015 Mar;98(3):1593-603. doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-8860. Epub 2014 Dec 18.
Lactobacillus gasseri is a widespread commensal lactic acid bacterium inhabiting human mucosal niches and has many beneficial effects as a probiotic. However, L. gasseri is difficult to grow in milk, which hurts usability for the food industry. It had been previously reported that supplementation with yeast extract or proteose peptone, including peptides, enables L. gasseri to grow well in milk. In this study, our objective was to confirm peptide requirement of L. gasseri and evaluate efficacy of peptide release by enzymatic proteolysis on growth of L. gassei in milk. Three strains of L. gasseri did not grow well in modified DeMan, Rogosa, Sharpe broth without any nitrogen sources (MRS-N), but addition of a casein-derived peptide mixture, tryptone, promoted growth. In contrast, little effect was observed after adding casein or a casein-derived amino acid mixture, casamino acids. These results indicate that L. gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, among milk-derived nitrogen sources for growth.
4.Ram horn peptone as a source of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger, with a process.
Kurbanoglu EB1, Kurbanoglu NI. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004 Jul;31(6):289-94. Epub 2004 Jul 10.
The present study deals with the production of citric acid from a ram horn peptone (RHP) by Aspergillus niger NRRL 330. A medium from RHP and a control medium (CM) were compared for citric acid production using A. niger in a batch culture. For this purpose, first, RHP was produced. Ram horns were hydrolyzed by treatment with acids (6 N H(2)SO(4), 6 N HCl) and neutralizing solutions. The amounts of protein, nitrogen, ash, some minerals, total sugars, total lipids and amino acids of the RHP were determined. RHP was compared with peptones with a bacto-tryptone from casein and other peptones. The results from RHP were similar to those of standard peptones. The optimal concentration of RHP for the production of citric acid was found to be 4% (w/w). A medium prepared from 4% RHP was termed ram horn peptone medium (RHPM). In comparison with CM, the content of citric acid in RHPM broth (84 g/l) over 6 days was 35% higher than that in CM broth (62 g/l).