NU7441 - CAS 503468-95-9
Catalog number: 503468-95-9
Category: Inhibitor
Not Intended for Therapeutic Use. For research use only.
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Molecular Weight:
NU7441 is a highly potent and selective DNA-PK inhibitor (IC50=14 nM), exhibiting ATP-competitive inhibition kinetics. NU7441 increased the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiation and etoposide in SW620, LoVo, and V3-YAC cells but not in V3 cells, confirming that potentiation was due to DNA-PK inhibition. NU7441 substantially retarded the repair of ionizing radiation-induced and etoposide-induced DSB. NU7441 appreciably increased G(2)-M accumulation induced by ionizing radiation, etoposide, and doxorubicin in both SW620 and LoVo cells. In mice bearing SW620 xenografts, NU7441 concentrations in the tumor necessary for chemopotentiation in vitro were maintained for at least 4 hours at nontoxic doses. NU7441 increased etoposide-induced tumor growth delay 2-fold without exacerbating etoposide toxicity to unacceptable levels. In conclusion, NU7441 shows sufficient proof of principle through in vitro and in vivo chemosensitization and radiosensitization to justify further development of DNA-PK inhibitors for clinical use.
NU7441; NU-7441; NU 7441.
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1.Phosphorylation in the serine/threonine 2609-2647 cluster promotes but is not essential for DNA-dependent protein kinase-mediated nonhomologous end joining in human whole-cell extracts.
Povirk LF;Zhou RZ;Ramsden DA;Lees-Miller SP;Valerie K Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35(12):3869-78. Epub 2007 May 25.
Previous work suggested that phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs at several serine/threonine (S/T) residues at positions 2609-2647 promotes DNA-PK-dependent end joining. In an attempt to clarify the role of such phosphorylation, end joining was examined in extracts of DNA-PKcs-deficient M059J cells. Joining of ends requiring gap filling prior to ligation was completely dependent on complementation of these extracts with exogenous DNA-PKcs. DNA-PKcs with either S/T --> A or S/T --> D substitutions at all six sites in the 2609-2647 cluster also supported end joining, but with markedly lower efficiency than wild-type protein. The residual end joining was greater with the S/T --> D-substituted than with the S/T --> A-substituted protein. A specific inhibitor of the kinase activity of DNA-PK, KU57788, completely blocked end joining promoted by wild type as well as both mutant forms of DNA-PK, while inhibition of ATM kinase did not. The fidelity of end joining was not affected by the mutant DNA-PKcs alleles or the inhibitors. Overall, the results support a role for autophosphorylation of the 2609-2647 cluster in promoting end joining and controlling the accessibility of DNA ends, but suggest that DNA-PK-mediated phosphorylation at other sites, on either DNA-PKcs or other proteins, is at least as important as the 2609-2647 cluster in regulating end joining.
2.Pharmacological inhibition of DNA-PK stimulates Cas9-mediated genome editing.
Robert F;Barbeau M;Éthier S;Dostie J;Pelletier J Genome Med. 2015 Aug 27;7:93. doi: 10.1186/s13073-015-0215-6.
BACKGROUND: ;The ability to modify the genome of any cell at a precise location has drastically improved with the recent discovery and implementation of CRISPR/Cas9 editing technology. However, the capacity to introduce specific directed changes at given loci is hampered by the fact that the major cellular repair pathway that occurs following Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage is the erroneous non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. Homology-directed recombination (HDR) is far less efficient than NHEJ and makes screening of clones containing directed changes time-consuming and labor-intensive.;METHODS: ;We investigated the possibility of pharmacologically inhibiting DNA-PKcs, a key player in NHEJ, using small molecule inhibitors (NU7441 and KU-0060648), to ameliorate the rates of HDR repair events. These compounds were tested in a sensitive reporter assay capable of simultaneously informing on NHEJ and HDR, as well as on an endogenous gene targeted by Cas9.;RESULTS: ;We find that NU7441 and KU-0060648 reduce the frequency of NHEJ while increasing the rate of HDR following Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage.;CONCLUSIONS: ;Our results identify two small molecules compatible for use with Cas9-editing technology to improve the frequency of HDR.
3.Changes in the response of MCF-7 cells to ionizing radiation after the combination of ATM and DNA-PK inhibition.
Ćmielová J;Havelek R;Vávrová J;Řezáčová M Med Oncol. 2015 May;32(5):138. doi: 10.1007/s12032-015-0591-1. Epub 2015 Mar 24.
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of ATM (KU55933) and DNA-PK (NU7441) inhibitors in the repair of double-strand breaks and downstream signaling of DNA damage introduced by ionizing radiation. The irradiation of MCF-7 cells alone increased the proportion of cells in the G1 phase in comparison with mock-treated cells. After ATM inhibitor pretreatment, the cells were more accumulated in the G2 phase, whereas DNA-PK inhibitor application increased the percentage of cells in the G1 phase. ATM and DNA-PK inhibitor application alone increased the sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to ionizing radiation; however, combining both inhibitors together resulted in a further enhancement of cell death. Unexpectedly, combining both inhibitors decreased the percentage of senescent cells and increased G2 cell cycle arrest 3 days after treatment. After irradiation, the p21 protein was increased and Chk1 and Chk2 were activated. These proteins were not increased in cells pretreated with the ATM inhibitor prior to ionizing radiation exposure, albeit DNA-PK inhibitor application did not affect the amount of proteins detected. Formation of γH2AX was found to be ATM and DNA-PK dependent, application of the ATM inhibitor suppressed incidence of γH2AX, whereas DNA-PK caused persistence of γH2AX.
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