1.Low-Dose Endothelial Monocyte-Activating Polypeptide-II Induces Blood-Tumor Barrier Opening Via the cAMP/PKA/Rac1 Pathway.
Li Z1, Liu XB2, Liu YH3, Xue YX4,5, Liu J1, Teng H1, Xi Z1, Yao YL1. J Mol Neurosci. 2016 Feb;58(2):153-61. doi: 10.1007/s12031-015-0649-8. Epub 2015 Sep 10.
Previous studies have demonstrated that low-dose endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) induces blood-tumor barrier (BTB) hyperpermeability via both paracellular and transcellular pathways. In a recent study, we revealed that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent signaling pathway is involved in EMAP-II-induced BTB hyperpermeability. This study further investigated the exact mechanisms through which the cAMP/PKA-dependent signaling pathway affects EMAP-II-induced BTB hyperpermeability. In an in vitro BTB model, low-dose EMAP-II (0.05 nM) induced a significant decrease in Rac1 activity in rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBMECs). Pretreatment with forskolin to elevate intracellular cAMP concentration completely blocked EMAP-II-induced inactivation of Rac1. Besides, pretreatment with 6Bnz-cAMP to activate PKA partially attenuated EMAP-II-induced Rac1 inactivation. Moreover, 6Bnz-cAMP pretreatment significantly diminished EMAP-II-induced changes in BTB permeability, myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, expression and distribution of ZO-1, and actin cytoskeleton arrangement in RBMECs.
2.Inhibition of the Rac1-WAVE2-Arp2/3 signaling pathway promotes radiosensitivity via downregulation of cofilin-1 in U251 human glioma cells.
Zhou T1, Wang CH1, Yan H1, Zhang R1, Zhao JB1, Qian CF1, Xiao H2, Liu HY1. Mol Med Rep. 2016 Apr 5. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2016.5088. [Epub ahead of print]
The Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)-WASP-family verprolin-homologous protein-2 (WAVE2)-actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) signaling pathway has been identified to be involved in cell migration and invasion in various types of cancer cell. Cofilin‑1 (CFL‑1), which is regulated by the Rac1‑WAVE2‑Arp2/3 signaling pathway, may promote radioresistance in glioma. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the potential role of the Rac1‑WAVE2‑Arp2/3 signaling pathway in radioresistance in U251 human glioma cells and elucidate its affect on CFL‑1 expression. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the protein expression of CFL‑1. In the present study, Rac1 was inhibited by NSC 23766, WAVE2 was inhibited by transfection with short hairpin (sh)RNA‑WAVE2 using Lipofectamine™ 2000 and Arp2/3 was inhibited by CK‑666. Cell viability was measured using the 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)-2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the cell migration ability was examined by a wound‑healing assay, and the cell invasion ability was assessed using a Transwell culture chamber system.
3.Syndecan-4 ectodomain evokes mobilization of podocyte TRPC6 channels and their associated pathways: An essential role for integrin signaling.
Kim EY1, Roshanravan H2, Dryer SE3. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 Oct;1853(10 Pt A):2610-20. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2015.07.011. Epub 2015 Jul 17.
PodocyteTRPC6 channels have been implicated in glomerular diseases. Syndecan-4 (Sdc4) is a membrane proteoglycan that can be cleaved to release a soluble ectodomain capable of paracrine and autocrine signaling. We have confirmed that overexpression of Sdc4 core protein increases surface abundance of TRPC6 channels in cultured podocytes, whereas Sdc4 knockdown has the opposite effect. Exposure to soluble Sdc4 ectodomain also increased the surface abundance of TRPC6, and increased cationic currents evoked by a diacylglycerol analog in podocytes. Sdc4 ectodomain increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced activation of RhoA, increased activation of Rac1, increased nuclear abundance of NFATc1, and increased total β3-integrin. The effects of Sdc4 ectodomain on cell-surface TRPC6 were blocked by the ROS quencher TEMPOL, and by the Rac1 inhibitor NSC-23766, but were not blocked by inhibition of calcineurin-NFATc1 signaling. The Sdc4 core protein co-immunoprecipitates with β3-integrin in cultured podocytes.
4.A new cell-based assay to evaluate myogenesis in mouse myoblast C2C12 cells.
Kodaka M1, Yang Z2, Nakagawa K1, Maruyama J1, Xu X3, Sarkar A1, Ichimura A1, Nasu Y4, Ozawa T5, Iwasa H1, Ishigami-Yuasa M6, Ito S7, Kagechika H8, Hata Y9. Exp Cell Res. 2015 Aug 15;336(2):171-81. doi: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2015.06.015. Epub 2015 Jun 24.
The development of the efficient screening system of detecting compounds that promote myogenesis and prevent muscle atrophy is important. Mouse C2C12 cells are widely used to evaluate myogenesis but the procedures of the assay are not simple and the quantification is not easy. We established C2C12 cells expressing the N-terminal green fluorescence protein (GFP) and the C-terminal GFP (GFP1-10 and GFP11 cells). GFP1-10 and GFP11 cells do not exhibit GFP signals until they are fused. The signal intensity correlates with the expression of myogenic markers and myofusion. Myogenesis-promoting reagents, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) and β-guanidinopropionic acid (GPA), enhance the signals, whereas the poly-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK, suppresses it. GFP signals are observed when myotubes formed by GFP1-10 cells are fused with single nuclear GFP11 cells, and enhanced by IGF1, GPA, and IBS008738, a recently-reported myogenesis-promoting reagent.