Noradrenaline bitartrate monohydrate - CAS 108341-18-0
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Not Intended for Therapeutic Use. For research use only.
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Noradrenaline bitartrate monohydrate is a direct alpha-adrenergic receptors stimulator.Noradrenaline modulates the gain of evoked activity, especially in sensory areas.
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1.Antidepressant-like effects of Brassica juncea L. leaves in diabetic rodents.
Thakur AK, Chatterjee SS, Kumar V. Indian J Exp Biol. 2014 Jun;52(6):613-22.
The objective of the study was to evaluate for antidepressant like activity of a methanolic extract of B. juncea leaves (BJ 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day, po), and Imipramine (15 mg/kg/day, po) in alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, ip) induced diabetic and nondiabetic rodents, using behavioural despair, learned helplessness, and tail suspension tests for antidepressants and locomotor activity test for quantifying the behavioural effects of treatments. In addition, effects of BJ treatments on brain levels of norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine were also estimated. Enhanced depressive states, and motility were observed in diabetic animals. Antidepressant and motor function depressing effects of BJ were apparent in all behavioural tests in diabetic rats and mice only. Decreased contents of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin in brain of diabetic rats were also dose dependently compensated by repeated daily BJ treatments. However, brain dopamine level of BJ treated normal rats was higher than that in control nondiabetic.
2.The role of α₂ adrenoceptor in mediating noradrenaline action in the ventrolateral orbital cortex on allodynia following spared nerve injury.
Zhu JX1, Xu FY, Xu WJ, Zhao Y, Qu CL, Tang JS, Barry DM, Du JQ, Huo FQ. Exp Neurol. 2013 Oct;248:381-6. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2013.07.004. Epub 2013 Jul 18.
The present study examined the role of α₂ adrenoceptor in mediating noradrenaline action in the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) on allodynia induced by spared nerve injury (SNI) in the rat. The mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) was measured using von-Frey filaments. Microinjection of noradrenaline (1, 2, 4 μg in 0.5 μl) into the VLO, contralateral to the site of nerve injury, reduced allodynia; PWT increased in a dose-dependent manner. Similar to noradrenaline, microinjection of selective α₂ adrenoceptor agonist clonidine into the same VLO site also reduced allodynia, and was blocked by selective α₂ adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine. Furthermore, administration of γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor antagonist bicuculline or picrotoxin to the VLO significantly enhanced clonidine-induced inhibition of allodynia, while GABAA receptor agonist muscimol or THIP (2,5,6,7-retrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridine-3-ol hydrochloride) attenuated clonidine-induced inhibition.
3.Effects of acute and chronic administration of MCI-225, a new selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT3 receptor blocking action, on extracellular Wu YL1, Yoshida M, Emoto H, Ishii H, Koga K, Tanaka M. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2000 May;83(1):31-8.
In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic systemic administration of MCI-225 (4-(2-fluorophenyl)-6-methyl-2-(1-piperazinyl)thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine monohydrate hydrochloride), a newly-developed selective noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT3-receptor-blocking action, on extracellular NA levels in the hypothalamus of stressed and non-stressed rats by utilizing intracerebral microdialysis. Acute administration of MCI-225 (3 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly and dose-dependently increased extracellular NA levels in the hypothalamus in non-stressed rats. Footshock for 20 min also significantly increased NA levels in the hypothalamus of both groups of rats pretreated with vehicle and MCI-225. Although chronic administration of MCI-225 (3 or 10 mg/kg, p.o. for 14 days) did not alter the basal extracellular NA levels in the hypothalamus, the stress-induced increases in extracellular NA levels were significantly lower in rats chronically treated with MCI-225 (10 mg/kg) than those of rats pretreated with vehicle for the same period.
4.Norepinephrine responses in rat renal and femoral veins are reinforced by vasoconstrictor prostanoids.
de Souza Rossignoli P1, Yamamoto FZ2, Pereira OC3, Chies AB4. Vascul Pharmacol. 2015 Sep;72:93-100. doi: 10.1016/j.vph.2015.06.017. Epub 2015 Jul 2.
Norepinephrine (NE) responses are larger in renal and femoral veins compared to phenylephrine (PE). These differences may be due to the subtypes of adrenoceptor involved in these responses or to the involvement of local modulatory mechanisms. Therefore, the present study investigated in organ bath the adrenoceptor subtypes involved in the NE and PE responses in both renal and femoral veins as well as the influence of local mechanisms related to NO and to prostanoids upon these responses. The obtained data showed that the NE responses in these veins were not significantly modified by the selective inhibition of β1 or β2-adrenoceptors as well as AT1 or AT2 receptors. However, yohimbine reduced the NE Rmax in renal veins and, in parallel, right shifted the NE concentration-response curves in femoral veins. In both veins, prazosin reduced the NE Rmax and the clonidine induced a measurable contraction. The endothelium removal attenuated the NE responses in femoral veins, thereby abolishing the differences of NE and PE responses.
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CAS 108341-18-0 Noradrenaline bitartrate monohydrate

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