1.19F Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometric Determination of the Partition Coefficients of Flutamide and Nilutamide (Antiprostate Cancer Drugs) in a Lipid Nano-Emulsion and Prediction of Its Encapsulation Efficiency for the Drugs.
Takegami S1, Kitamura K2, Ohsugi M2, Konishi A2, Kitade T2. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2016 Feb 10. [Epub ahead of print]
To design a useful lipid drug carrier having a high encapsulation efficiency (EE%) for the antiprostate cancer drugs flutamide (FT) and nilutamide (NT), a lipid nano-emulsion (LNE) was prepared with soybean oil (SO), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and sodium palmitate, and the partition coefficients (K ps) of the drugs for the LNE were determined by 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. The 19F NMR signal of the trifluoromethyl group of both drugs showed a downfield shift from an internal standard (trifluoroethanol) and broadening according to the increase in the lipid concentration due to their interaction with LNE particles. The difference in the chemical shift (Δδ) of each drug caused by the addition of LNE was measured under different amounts of LNE, and the K p values were calculated from the Δδ values. The results showed that FT has higher lipophilicity than NT. The total lipid concentration (SO + PC) required to encapsulate each drug into LNE with an EE% of more than 95% was calculated from the K p values as 93.
2.Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry study of nilutamide and its stress degradation products: in silico toxicity prediction of degradation products.
Ramesh Babu A1, Borkar RM, Raju G, Raju B, Srinivas R. Biomed Chromatogr. 2014 Jun;28(6):788-93. doi: 10.1002/bmc.3119.
Nilutamide, a nonsteroidal anti-androgen drug, widely used in the treatment of prostate cancer, was subjected to hydrolytic, photolytic, thermal and oxidative stress conditions as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines Q1A (R2). Nilutamide showed significant degradation under basic hydrolysis and photolytic stress conditions, while it was stable to neutral, acidic and thermal stress conditions. Five degradation products were formed and the chromatographic separation of nilutamide and its degradation products was achieved on a Waters C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 µm) using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% of formic acid in an isocratic elution method. All these degradation products were characterized by LC/MS/MS in negative ion mode, combined with accurate mass measurements. To assign likely structures for the observed degradation products, the fragmentation patterns of the deprotonated drug and its degradation products were compared.