1.Identification of NanE as the thioesterase for polyether chain release in nanchangmycin biosynthesis.
Liu T1, You D, Valenzano C, Sun Y, Li J, Yu Q, Zhou X, Cane DE, Deng Z. Chem Biol. 2006 Sep;13(9):945-55.
The polyketide synthase (PKS) for the biosynthesis of the polyether nanchangmycin lacks an apparent thioesterase comparable to the type I thioesterase domains of the modular PKSs responsible for macrolide biosynthesis. Three candidate polyether chain-releasing factors were examined. Both the putative CR domain and the NanE protein appeared to be genetically relevant. Among the three heterologously expressed soluble proteins (recombinant CR domain, the ACP-CR didomain, and NanE) tested, only NanE hydrolyzed the polyether-SNAC. By contrast, recombinant DEBS TE from the erythromycin pathway, and the recombinant MonAX, a type II TE associated with the polyether monensin biosynthesis for which a homolog has not been detected in the nanchangmycin cluster, hydrolyzed a diketide-SNAC but not the polyether-SNAC. We could thus conclude that NanE is a dedicated thioesterase mediating the specific release of the polyether chain during nanchangmycin biosynthesis.
2.The biosynthesis of the polyether antibiotic nanchangmycin is controlled by two pathway-specific transcriptional activators.
Yu Q1, Du A, Liu T, Deng Z, He X. Arch Microbiol. 2012 Jun;194(6):415-26. doi: 10.1007/s00203-011-0768-8. Epub 2011 Nov 23.
The nanchangmycin (NAN) produced by Streptomyces nanchangensis NS3226 is a polyether antibiotic resembling monensin in their gene clusters and the chemical structures. They can inhibit gram-positive bacteria and be a growth promoter for ruminants. Within the nanchangmycin gene cluster (nan), we identified that two SARP-family regulatory genes, nanR1 and nanR2, were both required to activate the transcription of all nan polyketide genes. Overexpression of NanR1 and NanR2 in wild-type increase NAN yields by at least three folds. Bioinformatic analysis of the immediate upstream DNA sequence of each nan gene and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of the nan operons identified five putative SARP binding sites. Moreover, deletion of an AraC-family repressor gene nanR4 increased expression of NanR1 and R2 and led to a threefold increase in NAN production.
3.Essential role of the donor acyl carrier protein in stereoselective chain translocation to a fully reducing module of the nanchangmycin polyketide synthase.
Guo X1, Liu T, Deng Z, Cane DE. Biochemistry. 2012 Jan 31;51(4):879-87. doi: 10.1021/bi201768v. Epub 2012 Jan 17.
Incubation of recombinant module 2 of the polyether nanchangmycin synthase (NANS), carrying an appended thioesterase domain, with the ACP-bound substrate (2RS)-2-methyl-3-ketobutyryl-NANS_ACP1 (2-ACP1) and methylmalonyl-CoA in the presence of NADPH gave diastereomerically pure (2S,4R)-2,4-dimethyl-5-ketohexanoic acid (4a). These results contrast with the previously reported weak discrimination by NANS module 2+TE between the enantiomers of the corresponding N-acetylcysteamine-conjugated substrate analogue (±)-2-methyl-3-ketobutyryl-SNAC (2-SNAC), which resulted in formation of a 5:3 mixture of 4a and its (2S,4S)-diastereomer 4b. Incubation of NANS module 2+TE with 2-ACP1 in the absence of NADPH gave unreduced 3,5,6-trimethyl-4-hydroxypyrone (3) with a k(cat) of 4.4 ± 0.9 min⁻¹ and a k(cat)/K(m) of 67 min⁻¹ mM⁻¹, corresponding to a ∼2300-fold increase compared to the k(cat)/K(m) for the diffusive substrate 2-SNAC. Covalent tethering of the 2-methyl-3-ketobutyryl thioester substrate to the NANS ACP1 domain derived from the natural upstream PKS module of the nanchangmycin synthase significantly enhanced both the stereospecificity and the kinetic efficiency of the sequential polyketide chain translocation and condensation reactions catalyzed by the ketosynthase domain of NANS module 2.
4.Genetic engineering of Streptomyces bingchenggensis to produce milbemycins A3/A4 as main components and eliminate the biosynthesis of nanchangmycin.
Zhang J, An J, Wang JJ, Yan YJ, He HR, Wang XJ, Xiang WS. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013 Dec;97(23):10091-101. Epub 2013 Sep 29.
Milbemycins A3/A4 are important 16-membered macrolides which have been commercialized and widely used as pesticide and veterinary medicine. However, similar to other milbemycin producers, the production of milbemycins A3/A4 in Streptomyces bingchenggensis is usually accompanied with undesired by-products such as C5-O - methylmilbemycins B2/B3 (α-class) and β1/β2 (β-class) together with nanchangmycin. In order to obtain high yield milbemycins A3/A4-producing strains that produce milbemycins A3/A4 as main components, milD, a putative C5-O-methyltransferase gene of S. bingchenggensis , was biofunctionally investigated by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli . Enzymatic analysis indicated that MilD can catalyze both α-class (A3/A4) and β-class milbemycins (β11) into C5-O-methylmilbemycins B2/B3 and β1, respectively, suggesting little effect of furan ring formed between C6 and C8a on the C5-O-methylation catalyzed by MilD. Deletion of milD gene resulted in the elimination of C5-Omethylmilbemycins B2/B3 and β1/β2 together with an increased yield of milbemycins A3/A4 in disruption strain BCJ13.