1.Role of serotonin 5-HT1A and opioid receptors in the antiallodynic effect of tramadol in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain in rats.
Berrocoso E1, De Benito MD, Mico JA. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Jul;193(1):97-105. Epub 2007 Mar 29.
RATIONALE: Tramadol (1RS, 2RS)-2-[(dimethylamino)-methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-cyclohexanol) is an atypical centrally acting analgesic agent with weak opioid receptor affinity that, like some antidepressants, enhances the extraneuronal concentrations of the monoamine neurotransmitters, noradrenaline and serotonin, by interfering with their re-uptake and release mechanisms.
2.A randomized, double-blind evaluation of buprenorphine taper duration in primary prescription opioid abusers.
Sigmon SC1, Dunn KE, Saulsgiver K, Patrick ME, Badger GJ, Heil SH, Brooklyn JR, Higgins ST. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 Dec;70(12):1347-54. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.2216.
IMPORTANCE: Although abuse of prescription opioids (POs) is a significant public health problem, few experimental studies have investigated the treatment needs of this growing population.
3.The effect of calcium-naloxone treatment on blood calcium, beta-endorphin, and acetylcholine in milk fever.
Rizzo A1, Minoia G, Ceci E, Manca R, Mutinati M, Spedicato M, Sciorsci RL. J Dairy Sci. 2008 Sep;91(9):3454-8. doi: 10.3168/jds.2007-0838.
Milk fever is a postpartum syndrome of cows characterized by acute hypocalcemia, which reduces the release of acetylcholine (ACH), inducing flaccid paralysis and recumbency. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of calcium (Ca2+) combined with naloxone (Nx, an opioid antagonist; Ca2+-Nx) on plasma concentrations of ACH, beta-endorphin (betaE), and Ca2+ just before treatment (T0) and at 15, 30, and 90 min after treatment (T15, T30, and T90, respectively). Thirty cows were divided into 3 groups of 10 cows each. In group A1, cows affected by milk fever were treated (i.v.) with a combination of 0.2 mL/kg of body weight (BW) of Ca2+ borogluconate (20%) and 0.01 mg/kg of BW of Nx hydrochloride dihydrate. In group A2, cows affected by milk fever were treated (i.v.) with 2 mL/kg of BW of Ca2+ borogluconate (20%). In group C, healthy cows were treated (i.v.) with a combination of 0.2 mL/kg of BW of Ca2+ borogluconate (20%) and 0.01 mg/kg of BW of Nx hydrochloride dihydrate.
4.Pharmacological actions of a new TRH analogue, YM-14673, in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia and anoxia.
Yamamoto M1, Shimizu M, Okamiya H. Eur J Pharmacol. 1990 Jun 8;181(3):207-14.
The cerebral protective actions of a new thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) analogue, YM-14673, [Na-[[(S)-4-oxo-2-azetidinyl-carbonyl]-L-histidyl-L-prolinamide] dihydrate), were compared with those of CDP-choline (cerebral metabolic enhancer) and naloxone in rats rats subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation and anoxic exposure (Levine rats). Drugs were administered intraperitoneally or orally 20, 80, and 140 min after anoxia. YM-14673 (0.03 to 1 mg/kg i.p. and 0.3 to 10 mg/kg p.o.) decreased the incidence of neurological deficits, such as hemiplegia and convulsion followed by coma and death, for 48 h after ischemia and anoxia. Both the increase in the brain water content and the degeneration of neurons in the cerebral cortex and thalamus were prevented by YM-14673 at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg (i.p.). CDP-choline (400 mg/kg i.p.), which is currently used in the therapy of cerebral vascular diseases, and naloxone (3 mg/kg i.p.) also decreased the incidence of the neurological deficits.