1.A nonclinical safety and pharmacokinetic evaluation of N6022: a first-in-class S-nitrosoglutathione reductase inhibitor for the treatment of asthma.
Colagiovanni DB1, Drolet DW, Langlois-Forget E, Piché MP, Looker D, Rosenthal GJ. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012 Feb;62(1):115-24. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2011.12.012. Epub 2011 Dec 24.
S-nitrosoglutathione reductase is the primary enzyme responsible for the metabolism of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), the body's main source of bioavailable nitric oxide. Through its catabolic activity, GSNO reductase (GSNOR) plays a central role in regulating endogenous S-nitrosothiol levels and protein S-nitrosation-based signaling. By inhibiting GSNOR, we aim to increase pulmonary GSNO and induce bronchodilation while reducing inflammation in lung diseases such as asthma. To support the clinical development of N6022, a first-in-class GSNOR inhibitor, a 14-day toxicology study was conducted. Sprague-Dawley rats were given 2, 10 or 50 mg/kg/day N6022 via IV administration. N6022 was well tolerated at all doses and no biologically significant adverse findings were noted in the study up to 10 mg/kg/day. N6022-related study findings were limited to the high dose group. One male rat had mild hepatocellular necrosis with accompanying increases in ALT and AST and several male animals had histological lung assessments with a slight increase in foreign body granulomas.
2.Mechanism of inhibition for N6022, a first-in-class drug targeting S-nitrosoglutathione reductase.
Green LS1, Chun LE, Patton AK, Sun X, Rosenthal GJ, Richards JP. Biochemistry. 2012 Mar 13;51(10):2157-68. doi: 10.1021/bi201785u. Epub 2012 Feb 28.
N6022 is a novel, first-in-class drug with potent inhibitory activity against S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), an enzyme important in the metabolism of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and in the maintenance of nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis. Inhibition of GSNOR by N6022 and related compounds has shown safety and efficacy in animal models of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and inflammatory bowel disease [Sun, X., et al. (2011) ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2, 402-406]. N6022 is currently in early phase clinical studies in humans. We show here that N6022 is a tight-binding, specific, and fully reversible inhibitor of GSNOR with an IC(50) of 8 nM and a K(i) of 2.5 nM. We accounted for the fact that the NAD(+)- and NADH-dependent oxidation and reduction reactions, catalyzed by GSNOR are bisubstrate in nature in our calculations. N6022 binds in the GSNO substrate binding pocket like a competitive inhibitor, although in kinetic assays it behaves with a mixed uncompetitive mode of inhibition (MOI) toward the GSNO substrate and a mixed competitive MOI toward the formaldehyde adduct, S-hydroxymethylglutathione (HMGSH).