1.Impaired tropomyosin-troponin interactions reduce activation of the actin thin filament.
Robaszkiewicz K1, Ostrowska Z1, Cyranka-Czaja A2, Moraczewska J3. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 May;1854(5):381-90. doi: 10.1016/j.bbapap.2015.01.004. Epub 2015 Jan 17.
Tropomyosin and troponin are bound to the actin filament to control the contraction of striated muscle in the Ca-dependent manner. The interactions between both regulatory proteins important for the regulation process are not fully understood. To gain more insight into the mechanisms of the thin filament regulation by skeletal α-tropomyosin and troponin, we analyzed effects of seven myopathy-related substitutions: Leu99Met, Ala155Thr, Arg167Gly, Arg167Cys, Arg167His, Lys168Glu, and Arg244Gly. All substitutions reduced Ca-dependent activation of the actomyosin ATPase. The effects of mutations in Arg167 and Lys168 were the most severe. The amino acid substitutions did not significantly affect troponin binding to the whole filament, but reduced 1.2-2.8 fold the affinity of troponin to tropomyosin alone. The excimer fluorescence of N-(1-pyrene)iodoacetamide, a probe attached to the central Cys190, demonstrated that substitutions located near the troponin core domain-binding region strongly affected conformational changes accompanying the tropomyosin-troponin interactions.
2.Calcium-dependent protein-protein interactions induce changes in proximity relationships of Cys48 and Cys64 in chicken skeletal troponin I.
Liou YM1, Chen MW. Eur J Biochem. 2003 Jul;270(14):3092-100.
The goal of this study was to relate conformational changes in the N-terminal domain of chicken troponin I (TnI) to Ca2+ activation of the actin-myosin interaction. The two cysteine residues in this region (Cys48 and Cys64) were labeled with two sulfhydryl-reactive pyrene-containing fluorophores [N-(1-pyrene)maleimide, and N-(1-pyrene)iodoacetamide]. The labeled TnI showed a typical fluorescence spectrum: two sharp peaks of monomer fluorescence and a broad peak of excimer fluorescence arising from the formation of an excited dimer (excimer). Results obtained show that forming a binary complex of labeled TnI with skeletal TnC (sTnC) in the absence of Ca2+ decreases the excimer fluorescence, indicating a separation of the two residues. This reduction in excimer fluorescence does not occur when labeled TnI is complexed with cardiac TnC (cTnC). The latter causes only partial activation of the Ca2+-dependent myofibrillar ATPase. The binding of Ca2+ to the two N-terminal sites of sTnC causes a significant decrease in excimer fluorescence and an increase in monomer fluorescence in complexes of labeled TnI with skeletal TnC or TnC/TnT, while Ca2+ binding to site II of cTnC only causes an increase in monomer fluorescence but no change in excimer fluorescence.
3.Self-association of Ca(2+)-binding peptides induced by lanthanide ions: a fluorescence study.
Clark ID1, Brown CM, Sikorska-Walker M, MacManus JP, Szabo AG. Anal Biochem. 1993 Sep;213(2):296-302.
In this study a Ca(2+)-binding 14mer peptide was synthesized with the sequence GDKNADGCIEFEEL, allowing covalent attachment of sulfhydryl-reactive fluorescent molecules at position 7 of the 12-residue, metal-binding loop (underlined). This provided the opportunity to select donor molecules with suitable spectral characteristics for sensitized excitation of chelated terbium (Tb3+) or europium (Eu3+) ions. N-(1-Pyrene)-iodoacetamide and 7-diethylamino-3-((4'-iodoacetylamino)phenyl)-4-methylcoumarin were attached to the peptide and titrations carried out with terbium or europium stock solutions. It was possible to observe lanthanide ion binding to the loop in stoichiometric quantities, but maximal lanthanide luminescence was achieved with a large excess of lanthanide present, due to metal-induced peptide association. Obtaining maximal lanthanide luminescence is important in the development of systems for use in sensitive clinical diagnostic and time-resolved luminescence-based immunoassay applications.
4.Excimer fluorescence as a tool for monitoring protein domain dynamics applied to actin conformation changes based on circulary polarized fluorescence spectroscopy.
Ikkai T1, Arii T, Shimada K. J Fluoresc. 2006 May;16(3):367-74. Epub 2006 May 13.
Fluorescence-detected circular dichroism (FDCD) was introduced into the study of protein conformation changes. Actin was used as a model protein which undergoes dynamic conformation changes as it polymerizes. Actin labeled with N-(1-pyrene)iodoacetamide (PIA) showed monomer fluorescence peak at 386 and 410 nm, and excimer fluorescence peak at around 480 nm. Excimer was formed by PIA-dimers labeled to different sites of amino acid residues. New information concerned with actin structural changes were monitored by fluorescence emission spectra excited with left- and right-circulary polarized light at 355 nm. FDCD intensities were shown as the difference in the fluorescence emission DeltaF, where DeltaF=(F (L)-F (R))/(F (L)+F (R)) denoting F (L) and F (R) as emissions obtained by excitation with left- and right-circulary polarized light. When solvent conditions of PIA-actin were changed by addition of NaCl, TFE, or ATP, DeltaF showed sensitive responses to these compounds.