1.Clinical proof-of-concept study with MSDC-0160, a prototype mTOT-modulating insulin sensitizer.
Colca JR1, VanderLugt JT, Adams WJ, Shashlo A, McDonald WG, Liang J, Zhou R, Orloff DG. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Apr;93(4):352-9. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2013.10. Epub 2013 Jan 18.
It may be possible to achieve insulin sensitivity through the recently identified mitochondrial target of thiazolidinediones (mTOT), thereby avoiding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ)-dependent side effects. In this phase IIb clinical trial, 258 patients with type 2 diabetes completed a 12-week protocol with 50, 100, or 150 mg of MSDC-0160 (an mTOT modulator), 45 mg pioglitazone HCl (a PPAR-γ agonist), or a placebo. The two active treatments lowered fasting glucose levels to the same extent. The decreases in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) observed with the two higher doses of MSDC-0160 were not different from those associated with pioglitazone. By contrast, fluid retention as evidenced by reduction in hematocrit, red blood cells, and total hemoglobin was 50% less in the MSDC-0160-treated groups. There was also a smaller increase in high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin with MSDC-0160 than with pioglitazone (P < 0.0001), suggesting that MSDC-0160 produces less expansion of white adipose tissue.
2.Novel insulin sensitizer modulates nutrient sensing pathways and maintains β-cell phenotype in human islets.
Rohatgi N1, Aly H, Marshall CA, McDonald WG, Kletzien RF, Colca JR, McDaniel ML. PLoS One. 2013 May 1;8(5):e62012. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062012. Print 2013.
Major bottlenecks in the expansion of human β-cell mass are limited proliferation, loss of β-cell phenotype, and increased apoptosis. In our previous studies, activation of Wnt and mTOR signaling significantly enhanced human β-cell proliferation. However, isolated human islets displayed insulin signaling pathway resistance, due in part to chronic activation of mTOR/S6K1 signaling that results in negative feedback of the insulin signaling pathway and a loss of Akt phosphorylation and insulin content. We evaluated the effects of a new generation insulin sensitizer, MSDC-0160, on restoring insulin/IGF-1 sensitivity and insulin content in human β-cells. This novel TZD has low affinity for binding and activation of PPARγ and has insulin-sensitizing effects in mouse models of diabetes and ability to lower glucose in Phase 2 clinical trials. MSDC-0160 treatment of human islets increased AMPK activity and reduced mTOR activity. This was associated with the restoration of IGF-1-induced phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3, and increased protein expression of Pdx1.
3.An evaluation of MSDC-0160, a prototype mTOT modulating insulin sensitizer, in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease.
Shah RC, Matthews DC, Andrews RD, Capuano AW, Fleischman DA, VanderLugt JT, Colca JR1. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2014;11(6):564-73.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with insulin resistance and specific regional declines in cerebral metabolism. The effects of a novel mTOT modulating insulin sensitizer (MSDC-0160) were explored in non-diabetic patients with mild AD to determine whether treatment would impact glucose metabolism measured by FDG-PET in regions that decline in AD. MSDC-0160 (150 mg once daily; N=16) compared to placebo (N=13) for 12 weeks did not result in a significant difference in glucose metabolism in pre-defined regions when referenced to the pons or whole brain. However, glucose metabolism referenced to cerebellum was maintained in MSDC-0160 treated participants while it significantly declined for placebo patients in anterior and posterior cingulate, and parietal, lateral temporal, medial temporal cortices. Voxel-based analyses showed additional differences in FDG-PET related to MSDC-0160 treatment. These exploratory results suggest central effects of MSDC-0160 and provide a basis for further investigation of mTOT modulating insulin sensitizers in AD patients.