1.Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from vegetables with regards to the marketing stage (farm vs. supermarket).
Schwaiger K1, Helmke K, Hölzel CS, Bauer J. Int J Food Microbiol. 2011 Aug 15;148(3):191-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.06.001. Epub 2011 Jun 15.
The aim of this study was to elucidate whether and to what extent fresh produce from Germany plays a role as a carrier and reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. For this purpose, 1001 vegetables (fruit, root, bulbous vegetables, salads and cereals) were collected from 13 farms and 11 supermarkets in Germany and examined bacteriologically. Phenotypic resistance of Enterobacter cloacae (n=172); Enterobacter gergoviae (n=92); Pantoea agglomerans (n=96); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=295); Pseudomonas putida (n=106) and Enterococcus faecalis (n=100) against up to 30 antibiotics was determined by using the microdilution method. Resistance to ß-lactams was most frequently expressed by P. agglomerans and E. gergoviae against cefaclor (41% and 29%). Relatively high resistance rates were also observed for doxycycline (23%), erythromycin (21%) and rifampicin (65%) in E. faecalis, for spectinomycin (28%) and mezlocillin (12%) in E. cloacae, as well as for streptomycin (19%) in P.
2.[Antimicrobial resistance and existence of metallo-beta-lactamase in Acinetobacter species isolated from adult patients].
Eser OK1, Ergin A, Hasçelik G. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2009 Jul;43(3):383-90.
Acinetobacter spp. are the frequent causes of nosocomial infections which are difficult to treat due to multidrug resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibilities and the presence of metallo-beta-lactamases in Acinetobacter spp. isolated from patients admitted to Hacettepe University Adult Hospital. A total of 124 Acinetobacter spp. isolates were included in the study. Antibiotic susceptibilities against imipenem (IMP), meropenem (MER), ceftazidime (CAZ), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and aztreonam (AZT) were studied by microdilution susceptibility testing according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Multidrug-resistant isolates (MDR) were further tested for susceptibility against colistin by microdilution, and against amikacin (AN), piperacillin-tazobactam (PIP-TAZ), cefepime (FEP), ceftriaxone (CRO), tetracycline (TET), trimetoprim-sulfomethoxazole (SXT) and mezlocillin (MEZ) by disk diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines.
3.Prevalence of Extended Spectrum β-lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Clinical Isolates.
Ali Abdel Rahim KA1, Ali Mohamed AM2. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2014 Nov;7(11):e17114. doi: 10.5812/jjm.17114. Epub 2014 Nov 1.
BACKGROUND: Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are gram-negative bacteria that produce the enzyme, β-lactamase, which can break down commonly used antibiotics, such as penicillin and cephalosporins, making infections with ESBL producing bacteria more difficult to treat. Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae were first reported in 1983 from Germany, and since then a steady increase in resistance against cephalosporins has been seen causing health problems.
4.Isolation and characterization of numerous novel phages targeting diverse strains of the ubiquitous and opportunistic pathogen Achromobacter xylosoxidans.
Wittmann J1, Dreiseikelmann B2, Rohde C1, Rohde M3, Sikorski J4. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 22;9(1):e86935. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086935. eCollection 2014.
The clinical relevance of nosocomially acquired infections caused by multi-resistant Achromobacter strains is rapidly increasing. Here, a diverse set of 61 Achromobacter xylosoxidans strains was characterized by MultiLocus Sequence Typing and Phenotype MicroArray technology. The strains were further analyzed in regard to their susceptibility to 35 antibiotics and to 34 different and newly isolated bacteriophages from the environment. A large proportion of strains were resistant against numerous antibiotics such as cephalosporines, aminoglycosides and quinolones, whereas piperacillin-tazobactam, ticarcillin, mezlocillin and imipenem were still inhibitory. We also present the first expanded study on bacteriophages of the genus Achromobacter that has been so far a blank slate with respect to phage research. The phages were isolated mainly from several waste water treatment plants in Germany. Morphological analysis of all of these phages by electron microscopy revealed a broad diversity with different members of the order Caudovirales, including the families Siphoviridae, Myoviridae, and Podoviridae.