1.Physicochemical properties and activity coefficients at infinite dilution for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate.
Domańska U1, Marciniak A. J Phys Chem B. 2010 Dec 16;114(49):16542-7. doi: 10.1021/jp109469s. Epub 2010 Nov 22.
The activity coefficients at infinite dilution γ(13)(∞) and gas−liquid partition coefficients K(L) for 43 solutes—alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, carboxylic acids, thiophene, ethers, ketones, and water—in the ionic liquid 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate ([dmim][TCB]) were determined by gas−liquid chromatography at temperatures from 318.15 to 378.15 K. The partial molar excess Gibbs energies ΔG(1)(E,∞), enthalpies ΔH(1)(E,∞), and entropies ΔS(1)(E,∞) at infinite dilution were calculated from the experimental γ(13)(∞) values obtained over the temperature range. Additionally, the densities for investigated ionic liquid over the temperature range were determined. The selectivities for the aliphatic/aromatic hydrocarbon separation problem were calculated from γ(13)(∞) and compared to the literature values for N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and sulfolane. It was found that the investigated [dmim][TCB] ionic liquid shows much higher capacity than NMP and sulfolane and selectivity on the same level as NMP and lower than that for sulfolane for the separation of aliphatic hydrocarbons from aromatic hydrocarbons.
2.Nonaqueous CE using contactless conductivity detection and ionic liquids as BGEs in ACN.
Borissova M1, Gorbatsova J, Ebber A, Kaljurand M, Koel M, Vaher M. Electrophoresis. 2007 Oct;28(20):3600-5.
N,N'-Alkylmethylimidazolium cations have been separated in NACE when one of the N,N'-dialkylimidazolium salts (ionic liquids (ILs)) was used as an electrolyte additive to the organic solvent separation medium. The separated species were 1-methyl-, 1-ethyl-, 1-butyl-, 1-octyl-, 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium and N-butyl-3-methylpyridinium cations and BGE composed of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate [BMIm][FAcO] (A6; B2) diluted in ACN. It was demonstrated that contactless conductivity detection (CCD) may be applied to monitoring the separation process in nonaqueous separation media, allowing to use the UV light-absorbing imidazolium-based electrolyte additives. There could be marked three concentration regions of added ILs; at first ionic strength of BGE below 1-2 mM, and then the actual electrophoretic mobility of analytes rises from 0. At concentrations above 1-2 mM, the added IL facilitated separation.
3.Activation of caspases and cleavage of Bid are required for tyrosine and phenylalanine deficiency-induced apoptosis of human A375 melanoma cells.
Ge X1, Fu YM, Li YQ, Meadows GG. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002 Jul 1;403(1):50-8.
Deprivation of tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) inhibits growth and induces programmed cell death (apoptosis) of human A375 melanoma cells. Herein, we found that activation of caspases and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c are required for this process. Culturing A375 cells in Tyr/Phe-free medium, containing 10% dialyzed fetal bovine serum, results in activation of caspase-3-like activity. This is accompanied by decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis. Tyr/Phe deprivation also stimulates proteolytic cleavage of the DNA repair enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Western blot analysis showed that caspases 3, 7, 8, and 9 are activated by deprivation of Tyr/Phe. Tyr/Phe deprivation decreases mitochondrial membrane potential, induces cleavage of Bid, increases translocation of Bax from the cytosol to mitochondria, and results in release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Apoptosis due to Tyr/Phe deprivation is almost completely inhibited by the broad-spectrum cell-permeable caspase inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone (Z.
4.Development of a transdermal patch of methadone: in vitro evaluation across hairless mouse and human cadaver skin.
Ghosh TK1, Bagherian A. Pharm Dev Technol. 1996 Oct;1(3):285-91.
A 3-day monolithic polyacrylate adhesive dispersion type delivery system containing methadone was fabricated and in vitro permeation through hairless mouse and human cadaver skins was conducted. The effect of skin permeation enhancers was also investigated. Skin permeation rate across human cadaver skin was found to be lower than that of hairless mouse. Skin permeation profiles across both types of skins showed a membrane permeation controlled cumulative amount permeated (Q) versus time (t) relationship. Skin permeation rate was found to be dependent on both adhesive film thickness and loading dose of the drug in the matrix. Effective skin permeation rate across the hairless mouse skin was obtained from a patch with 1.5 mm thickness and 15% w/w loading dose. n-Decylmethyl sulfoxide and Azone were found to produce an effective skin permeation rate of methadone through human cadaver skin at a 5% w/w concentration. These initial studies demonstrated the feasibility of methadone administration through intact skin from a transdermal patch.