1.Local delivery of neurotrophin-3 and anti-NogoA promotes repair after spinal cord injury.
Elliott Donaghue I1, Tator CH2, Shoichet MS PhD3,4. Tissue Eng Part A. 2016 Apr 8. [Epub ahead of print]
Tissue and functional repair after spinal cord injury (SCI) continues to elude researchers. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and anti-NogoA have been shown to promote axonal regeneration in animal models of SCI; however, localized and sustained delivery to the central nervous system remains a critical challenge for these and other macromolecular therapeutics. An injectable drug delivery system (DDS) has previously been developed that can provide safe, local delivery to the spinal cord. This DDS, composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles dispersed in a hyaluronan methylcellulose (HAMC) hydrogel, was adapted for the tunable, bioactive delivery of NT-3 and anti-NogoA. Further, the combined delivery of NT-3 and anti-NogoA from the DDS in an impact/compression model of SCI increases axon density and improves locomotor function. The benefits of this nanoparticle-hydrogel DDS observed for NT-3 and anti-NogoA demonstrate the utility of the DDS as a local delivery strategy for protein therapeutics to the central nervous system.
2.Cellulose nanocrystal-poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) brushes with tunable LCSTs.
Grishkewich N1, Akhlaghi SP1, Zhaoling Y1, Berry R2, Tam KC3. Carbohydr Polym. 2016 Jun 25;144:215-22. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.02.044. Epub 2016 Feb 18.
This paper reports on the synthesis of poly(oligoethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (POEGMA) grafted cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) via surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). An ATRP initiator (α-Bromoisobutyryl bromide) was covalently bonded to the surface of CNCs, followed by copolymerizing di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (MEO2MA) and oligoethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA300) monomers from the surface using Cu(I)Br/2,2-dipyridal. Multiple POEGMA-g-CNC systems with varying MEO2MA/OEGMA300 content were synthesized, and they displayed a range of lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs) in aqueous medium. μDSC endotherms and microstructural analysis indicated the collapse of POEGMA chains, followed by the aggregation of nanoparticles above their LCSTs. Cloud point measurements demonstrated a hysteresis in the heating and cooling of the POEGMA-g-CNC systems. It was found that the LCST of the nanoparticles could be tuned to between 23.
3.Development of a microfluidic paper-based analytical device for the determination of salivary aldehydes.
Ramdzan AN1, Almeida MI1, McCullough MJ2, Kolev SD3. Anal Chim Acta. 2016 May 5;919:47-54. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2016.03.030. Epub 2016 Mar 19.
A low cost, disposable and easy to use microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was developed for simple and non-invasive determination of total aldehydes in saliva with a potential to be used in epidemiological studies to assess oral cancer risk. The μPAD is based on the colour reaction between aldehydes (e.g. acetaldehyde, formaldehyde), 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) and iron(III) to form an intense blue coloured formazan dye. The newly developed μPAD has a 3D design with two overlapping paper layers. The first layer comprises 15 circular detection zones (8 mm in diameter), each impregnated with 8 μL of MBTH, while the second layer contains 15 reagent zones (4 mm in diameter). Two μL of iron(III) chloride are added to each one of the second layer zones after the addition of sample to the detection zones in the first layer. All hydrophilic zones of the μPAD are defined by wax printing using a commercial wax printer.
4.Anti-inflammatory effects of novel AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors in dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis in rats.
El-Salhy M1, Umezawa K2. Int J Mol Med. 2016 Apr 12. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2016.2560. [Epub ahead of print]
The aim of the present study was to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effects of the two novel anti-inflammatory substances, 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)‑methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G) and dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), on DSS-induced colitis in rats. For this purpose, rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis were randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 animals in each group as follows: i) the control group, which received 0.5 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC; vehicle), ii) rats that received DTCM-G (20 mg/kg body weight in 0.5% CMC; the DTCM-G group), and iii) rats that received DHMEQ (15 mg/kg body weight in 0.5% CMC; the DHMEQ group). The animals were sacrificed after the 5-day treatment period, and tissue samples were taken from their colons and sectioned for histological evaluation. The tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and immunostained for leukocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells.