Mahanine - CAS 28360-49-8
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Not Intended for Therapeutic Use. For research use only.
Mahanine, a carbazole alkaloid (occurs in the edible part of Micromelum minutum, Murraya koenigii and related species), is a DNA minor groove binding agent with potent anticancer activity. Mahanine down regulates cell survival factors by activation of caspase-3 through mitochondrial dependent pathway. Mahanine was found to inhibit growth of PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. Mechanistically, mahanine inhibited cell-survival pathway by dephosphorylation of PIP3 dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) thereby deactivation of Akt and downregulation of Bcl-xL. In addition, mahanine activated caspase pathway (caspases 9 and 3) and eventually cleavage of DNA repair enzyme, PARP resulting DNA fragmentation and apoptosis.
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1.Improved chemosensitivity in cervical cancer to cisplatin: synergistic activity of mahanine through STAT3 inhibition.
Das R1, Bhattacharya K1, Samanta SK1, Pal BC2, Mandal C3. Cancer Lett. 2014 Aug 28;351(1):81-90. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2014.05.005. Epub 2014 May 14.
Toxicity reduction of cisplatin is necessary for improved treatment of cancer. Here we have demonstrated the synergistic growth-inhibitory effect of cisplatin on cervical cancer cells in-combination with a nontoxic herbal carbazole alkaloid, mahanine. Mahanine enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis and reduced its effective concentration ∼5-8 folds. Mahanine inhibited JAK1 and Src and subsequently promoted proteasome-mediated degradation of STAT3. This event was further enhanced in-combination with cisplatin and subsequently inhibited cancer cell migration. Collectively, our results revealed that mahanine may be a prospective agent to reduce the concentration of cisplatin in adjunct for the treatment of cancer and thereby decreasing its toxicity.
2.Total Synthesis of 7-Hydroxymurrayazolinine, Murrayamine D, and Mahanine via m-Nitro Group Activated Pyran Annulation.
Hou S1, Liu Y1, Kong Y1, Brown ML1. Org Lett. 2015 May 15;17(10):2298-301. doi: 10.1021/acs.orglett.5b00422. Epub 2015 Apr 28.
The facile total synthesis of the natural product (±)-mahanine was obtained in eight steps with an overall 52% yield from readily accessible known nitrophenol derivative 6. After a one-step, acid-catalyzed annulation, two additional natural products were formed including 7-hydroxymurrayazolinine, representing its first reported total synthesis. In the whole process, the introduction of the m-nitro group significantly enhanced the key pyran annulation reaction through inductive effects.
3.Mahanine synergistically enhances cytotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil through ROS-mediated activation of PTEN and p53/p73 in colon carcinoma.
Das R1, Bhattacharya K, Sarkar S, Samanta SK, Pal BC, Mandal C. Apoptosis. 2014 Jan;19(1):149-64. doi: 10.1007/s10495-013-0907-6.
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) alone or in combination with other drugs is the main basis of chemotherapeutic treatment in colorectal cancer although patients with microsatellite instability generally show resistance to 5-FU treatment. The present investigation is focussed on the mechanistic insight of a pure herbal carbazole alkaloid, mahanine, as a single or in combination with 5-FU in colon cancer. We demonstrated that mahanine-induced apoptosis involved reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated nuclear accumulation of PTEN and its interaction with p53/p73. Mahanine and 5-FU in combination exerted synergistic inhibitory effect on cell viability. This combination also enhanced ROS production, increased tumour suppressor proteins and suppressed chemo-migration. Taken together, our results revealed that mahanine can be a potential chemotherapeutic agent with efficacy to reduce the concentration of toxic 5-FU in colon cancer.
4.Mahanine, a novel mitochondrial complex-III inhibitor induces G0/G1 arrest through redox alteration-mediated DNA damage response and regresses glioblastoma multiforme.
Bhattacharya K1, Bag AK1, Tripathi R2, Samanta SK1, Pal BC3, Shaha C2, Mandal C1. Am J Cancer Res. 2014 Nov 19;4(6):629-47. eCollection 2014.
The Electron transport chain (ETC) is responsible for oxidative phosphorylation-mediated mitochondrial respiration. Here we wanted to address the mahanine-induced targeted pathways in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in the context of G0/G1 phase arrest and redox alteration. We have demonstrated mahanine, as a novel mitochondrial complex-III inhibitor which induced G0/G1 phase arrest in GBM. This event was preceded by accumulation of intracellular ROS by the inhibition of mitochondrial ETC. The accumulated ROS induced DNA damage response (DDR), that mediated Chk1/Chk2 upregulation and activation which were essential factors for the G0/G1 arrest. NAC-mediated scavenging of ROS generation reduced the propensity of G0/G1 phase arrest in GBM cells by mahanine. Knockdown of Chk1/Chk2 also affected the cell cycle inhibitory potential of mahanine. During G0/G1 arrest, other hallmark proteins like, cyclin D1/cyclin D3, CDK4/CDK6 and CDC25A were also downregulated.
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CAS 28360-49-8 Mahanine

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