||APIs for Veterinary
||Levamisole hydrochloride, the hydrochloride salt of a water-soluble imidazothiazole derivative, selectively activates acetylcholine receptor ion channels in nerve and muscle of nematodes (EC50 = 6 µM). It has anthelminthic and immunomodulating activities.
1. Spirocerca lupi infection in a dog from southern Italy: an “old fashioned” disease?
Alessio Giannelli & Valeria Baldassarre. Parasitol Res (2014) 113:2391–2394
At the histology of the gastric nodule, sections of an adult nematode were observed. The sample contained intact gastric mucosa covering a large cyst (15×8 mm in diameter), embedding a reddish worm in the muscular tunica (Fig. 1). The parasite was surrounded by an inflammatory infiltrate composed of neutrophils, plasma cells, lymphocytes, ceroid-laden macrophages, and a few eosinophils, admixed with plump reactive fibroblasts, and separated by collagen bands and small-calibre blood vessels. Based on morphology, the nematode was identified as a female S. lupi. Briefly, the parasite was 1 mm long in diameter, with a 10 μm-thick reddish smooth cuticle, containing coelomyarian musculature and prominent lateral chordae. The pseudocoelom contained a small amount of eosinophilic material, a large digestive tract lined by uni-nucleate columnar epithelium with prominent microvilli, and reproductive organs (i.e. a thin-walled vulva; Fig. 2). The morphological identification was confirmed by molecular amplification and sequencing of partial cox2gene sequence. Nucleotide sequence, examined by BLAST, displayed 100 % homology with that of S. lupi in GenBank (accession number KC305876). Eggs of S. lupi were identified during the coprological examination performed 4 weeks later after treatment with levamisole hydrochloride.
2. Interaction Between Levamisole Hydrochloride and Bovine Serum Albumin and the Inﬂuence of Alcohol: Spectra
Hua Yan • Songlin Zhao • Jianguo Yang. J Solution Chem (2009) 38: 1183–1192
Levamisole hydrochloride (LH), a broad spectrum anthelminthic medication (Fig. 1)used in common veterinary and human medicine, has been used as an immunomodulator in the treatment of human cancer in recent years. Its application for cancer therapy, especially for the treatment of colon and breast cancers, along with other antineoplastic drugs prolonged the survival of patients. Studies involving animals revealed that high doses of levamisole induced a cardiotoxic effect.