Lactulose - CAS 4618-18-2
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Not Intended for Therapeutic Use. For research use only.
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Lactulose, a disaccharide composed of galactose and fructose, is a stimulator of health-promoting bacterium growth in the gastrointestinal tract, used to treat chronic constipation and hepatic encephalopathy.
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1.Non-Absorbable Disaccharides for Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Gluud LL1, Vilstrup H2, Morgan MY3. Hepatology. 2016 Apr 15. doi: 10.1002/hep.28598. [Epub ahead of print]
Non-absorbable disaccharides (NADs) have been used to treat hepatic encephalopathy (HE) since 1966. However, a Cochrane review, published in 2004, found insufficient evidence to recommend their use in this context. This updated systematic review evaluates the effects of the NADs, lactulose and lactitol, for the treatment and prevention of HE in patients with cirrhosis. Thirty-eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs), involving 1828 patients, were identified via electronic and manual searches; 31 RCTs looked at the treatment of HE while seven looked at its primary/secondary prevention. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that, compared to placebo/no intervention, NADs had a beneficial effect on HE (relative risk [RR], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-0.74; Number Needed to Treat [NNT] = 4) and serious liver-related adverse events such as: liver failure, variceal bleeding, serious infections, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome (RR, 0.
2.Enhancement of isomerization activity and lactulose production of cellobiose 2-epimerase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus.
Shen Q1, Zhang Y2, Yang R3, Pan S4, Dong J5, Fan Y5, Han L5. Food Chem. 2016 Sep 15;207:60-7. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.02.067. Epub 2016 Feb 10.
Industrial application of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus cellobiose 2-epimerase (CsCE) for lactulose synthesis is limited by low enzyme activity and formation of epilactose as by-product. After four sequential rounds of random mutagenesis and screening, an optimal mutant G4-C5 was obtained. Compared with wild type (WT) enzyme, mutant G4-C5 demonstrated 2.8- and 3.0-fold increases in specific activity and kcat/Km for lactulose production, respectively, without compromising thermostability. DNA sequencing of mutant G4-C5 revealed five amino acid substitutions, namely, R5M, I52V, A12S, K328I and F231L, which were located on the protein surface, except for the mutation I52V. The yield of lactulose catalyzed by mutant G4-C5 increased to approximately 76% with no obvious epilactose detected, indicating that mutant G4-C5 was more suitable for lactulose production than the WT enzyme.
3.Effect of oligosaccharides on the adhesion of gut bacteria to human HT-29 cells.
Altamimi M1, Abdelhay O2, Rastall RA3. Anaerobe. 2016 Mar 24;39:136-142. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.03.010. [Epub ahead of print]
The influence of five oligosaccharides (cellobiose, stachyose, raffinose, lactulose and chito-oligosaccharides) on the adhesion of eight gut bacteria (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron ATCC 29148D-5, Clostridium leptum ATCC 29065, Blautia coccoides ATCC 29236, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii ATCC 27766, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 23745, Clostridium difficile ATCC 43255 and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393) to mucous secreting and non-mucous secreting HT-29 human epithelial cells, was investigated. In pure culture, the bacteria showed variations in their ability to adhere to epithelial cells. The effect of oligosaccharides diminished adhesion and the presence of mucus played a major factor in adhesion, likely due to high adhesiveness to mucins present in the native human mucus layer covering the whole cell surface. However, clostridia displayed almost the same level of adhesion either with or without mucus being present.
4.Impact of Dietary Lipids on Colonic Function and Microbiota: An Experimental Approach Involving Orlistat-Induced Fat Malabsorption in Human Volunteers.
Morales P1, Fujio S2, Navarrete P2, Ugalde JA3, Magne F4, Carrasco-Pozo C1, Tralma K1, Quezada M1, Hurtado C5, Covarrubias N5, Brignardello J2, Henriquez D2, Gotteland M1,2. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2016 Apr 7;7:e161. doi: 10.1038/ctg.2016.20.
OBJECTIVES: High-fat diets alter gut microbiota and barrier function, inducing metabolic endotoxemia and low-grade inflammation. Whether these effects are due to the high dietary lipid content or to the concomitant decrease of carbohydrate intake is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether higher amounts of dietary fat reaching the colon (through orlistat administration) affect the colonic ecosystem in healthy volunteers and the effect of the prebiotic oligofructose (OF) in this model.
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CAS 4618-18-2 Lactulose

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