1.--Essential-oil composition of the fruits of six Heracleum L. species from Iran: chemotaxonomic significance.
Radjabian T1, Salimi A, Rahmani N. Chem Biodivers. 2014 Dec;11(12):1945-53. doi: 10.1002/cbdv.201400085.
The fruit essential oils of Heracleum persicum, H. rechingeri, H. gorganicum, H. rawianum, H. pastinacifolium, and H. anisactis from Iran were obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The oils of the six species were compared to determine the similarities and differences among their compositions. Overall, 36 compounds were identified in the fruit oils, accounting for 92.40-96.74% of the total oil compositions. Aliphatic esters constituted the main fraction of the oils (86.61-94.31%), with octyl acetate and hexyl butyrate as the major components. The oil compositions of species belonging to section Pubescentia (H. persicum, H. gorganicum, and H. rechingeri) were discriminated by equally high contents of both octyl acetate (13.84-20.48%) and hexyl butyrate (17.73-38.36%). On the other hand, the oils of H. rawianum, H. pastinacifolium and H. anisactis, belonging to section Wendia, showed lower hexyl butyrate contents (3.
2.Isolation of Bioactive Compounds That Relate to the Anti-Platelet Activity of Cymbopogon ambiguus.
Grice ID1, Rogers KL2, Griffiths LR3. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:467134. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nep213. Epub 2011 Feb 14.
Infusions and decoctions of Cymbopogon ambiguus have been used traditionally in Australia for the treatment of headache, chest infections and muscle cramps. The aim of the present study was to screen and identify bioactive compounds from C. ambiguus that could explain this plant's anti-headache activity. A dichloromethane extract of C. ambiguus was identified as having activity in adenosine-diphosphate-induced human platelet aggregation and serotonin-release inhibition bioassays. Subsequent fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of four phenylpropenoids, eugenol, elemicin, eugenol methylether and trans-isoelemicin. While both eugenol and elemicin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of ADP-induced human platelet serotonin release, only eugenol displayed potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 46.6 μ M, in comparison to aspirin, with an IC50 value of 46.1 μ M. These findings provide evidence to support the therapeutic efficacy of C.
3.GC/GC-MS analysis, isolation and identification of bioactive essential oil components from the Bhutanese medicinal plant, Pleurospermum amabile.
Wangchuk P1, Keller PA, Pyne SG, Taweechotipatr M, Kamchonwongpaisan S. Nat Prod Commun. 2013 Sep;8(9):1305-8.
We have hydrodistilled the essential oil (EO) from the aerial parts of the Bhutanese medicinal plant, Pleurospermum amabile using a Clevenger apparatus and evaluated this EO by GC/GC-MS and NMR analysis followed by testing for bioactivity. The GC-MS analysis identified 52 compounds with (E)-isomyristicin as a major component (32.2%). Repeated purification yielded four compounds; (E)-isomyristicin (1), (E)-isoapiol (2), methyl eugenol (3) and (E)-isoelemicin (4). Compound 2 and the mother EO showed the best antiplasmodial activity against the Plasmodium falciparum strains, TM4/8.2 (chloroquine and antifolate sensitive) and K1CB1 (multidrug resistant). They exhibited mild antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis. None of the test samples showed cytotoxicity.
4.Terpenoid composition and antifungal activity of three commercially important essential oils against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger.
Bisht D1, Pal A, Chanotiya CS, Mishra D, Pandey KN. Nat Prod Res. 2011 Dec;25(20):1993-8. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2010.521926. Epub 2011 Jun 27.
Hydro-distilled essential oils extracted from three commercially important aromatic plants were analysed by capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography/quadrupole mass spectrometry and subjected to antifungal activity. Fifteen compounds, which accounted for 97.8% of Acorus calamus root oil composition have been identified. Besides the major constituent (Z)-asarone (81.1-92.4%), (Z)-methyl isoeugenol (1.8-2.1%), (Z)-isoelemicin (1.2-1.3%), (E)-asarone (1.0-2.6%), (E)-methyl isoeugenol (0.2-0.4%), (Z)-β-ocimene (0.2-0.4%), elemicin (0.2-0.3%), linalool (0.1-0.9%) and kessane (t-0.2%) were identified. Monoterpenes constituted the main fraction of Origanum vulgare essential oil attaining 90.5% of the total oil composition. p-Cymene (10.3%) was the major component of the monoterpene hydrocarbon fraction while thymol (53.2%) and carvacrol (3.9%) were the most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes among the 33 identified constituents.