IRAK inhibitor 4 - CAS 1012104-68-5
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Not Intended for Therapeutic Use. For research use only.
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IRAK inhibitor 4 is interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase inhibitor.
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1.Renoprotective effects of novel interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 inhibitor AS2444697 through anti-inflammatory action in 5/6 nephrectomized rats.
Kondo M1, Tahara A, Hayashi K, Abe M, Inami H, Ishikawa T, Ito H, Tomura Y. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2014 Oct;387(10):909-19. doi: 10.1007/s00210-014-1023-z. Epub 2014 Jul 23.
Renal inflammation is a final common pathway of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and its progression can be used to effectively gauge the degree of renal dysfunction. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) has been reported to be a pivotal molecule for IL-1 receptor- and Toll-like receptor-induced signaling and activation of proinflammatory mediators. In this study, we hypothesized that if inflammation plays a key role in renal failure, then the anti-inflammatory effect of IRAK-4 inhibitor should be effective in improving CKD. To determine its pharmacological potency, we investigated the renoprotective properties of the novel IRAK-4 inhibitor AS2444697 (N-[3-carbamoyl-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-2-(2-methylpyridin-4-yl)-1,3-oxazole-4-carboxamide hydrochloride (1:1)) in 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) rats, a model of CKD. Six weeks' repeated administration of AS2444697 (0.3-3 mg/kg, twice daily) dose-dependently and significantly reduced urinary protein excretion and prevented the development of glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis without affecting the blood pressure.
2.The structure function of the death domain of human IRAK-M.
Du J, Nicolaes GA, Kruijswijk D, Versloot M, van der Poll T, van 't Veer C. Cell Commun Signal. 2014 Dec 7;12:77. doi: 10.1186/s12964-014-0077-3.
BACKGROUND: IRAK-M is an inhibitor of Toll-like receptor signaling that acts by re-directing IRAK-4 activity to TAK1 independent NF-κB activation and by inhibition of IRAK-1/IRAK-2 activity. IRAK-M is expressed in monocytes/macrophages and lung epithelial cells. Lack of IRAK-M in mice greatly improves the resistance to nosocomial pneumonia and lung tumors, which entices IRAK-M as a potential therapeutic target. IRAK-M consists of an N-terminal death domain (DD), a dysfunctional kinase domain and unstructured C-terminal domain. Little is known however on IRAK-M's structure-function relationships.
3.The IRAK-ERK-p67phox-Nox-2 axis mediates TLR4, 2-induced ROS production for IL-1β transcription and processing in monocytes.
Singh A1, Singh V1, Tiwari RL1, Chandra T2, Kumar A3, Dikshit M1, Barthwal MK1. Cell Mol Immunol. 2015 Aug 31. doi: 10.1038/cmi.2015.62. [Epub ahead of print]
In monocytic cells, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and TLR2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause oxidative stress and inflammatory response; however, the mechanism is not well understood. The present study investigated the role of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p67phox and Nox-2 in TLR4- and TLR2-induced ROS generation during interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) transcription, processing, and secretion. An IRAK1/4 inhibitor, U0126, PD98059, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor (diphenyleneiodonium (DPI)), and a free radical scavenger (N-acetyl cysteine (NAC))-attenuated TLR4 (lipopolysaccharide (LPS))- and TLR2 (Pam3csk4)-induced ROS generation and IL-1β production in THP-1 and primary human monocytes. An IRAK1/4 inhibitor and siRNA-attenuated LPS- and Pam3csk4-induced ERK-IRAK1 association and ERK phosphorylation and activity. LPS and Pam3csk4 also induced IRAK1/4-, ERK- and ROS-dependent activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1), IL-1β transcription, and IL-1β processing because significant inhibition in AP-1 activity, IL-1β transcription, Pro- and mature IL-β expression, and caspase-1 activity was observed with PD98059, U0126, DPI, NAC, an IRAK1/4 inhibitor, tanshinone IIa, and IRAK1 siRNA treatment.
4.IRAK-M promotes alternative macrophage activation and fibroproliferation in bleomycin-induced lung injury.
Ballinger MN1, Newstead MW2, Zeng X2, Bhan U2, Mo XM3, Kunkel SL4, Moore BB2, Flavell R5, Christman JW6, Standiford TJ2. J Immunol. 2015 Feb 15;194(4):1894-904. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1402377. Epub 2015 Jan 16.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating lung disease characterized by inflammation and the development of excessive extracellular matrix deposition. Currently, there are only limited therapeutic intervenes to offer patients diagnosed with pulmonary fibrosis. Although previous studies focused on structural cells in promoting fibrosis, our study assessed the contribution of macrophages. Recently, TLR signaling has been identified as a regulator of pulmonary fibrosis. IL-1R-associated kinase-M (IRAK-M), a MyD88-dependent inhibitor of TLR signaling, suppresses deleterious inflammation, but may paradoxically promote fibrogenesis. Mice deficient in IRAK-M (IRAK-M(-/-)) were protected against bleomycin-induced fibrosis and displayed diminished collagen deposition in association with reduced production of IL-13 compared with wild-type (WT) control mice. Bone marrow chimera experiments indicated that IRAK-M expression by bone marrow-derived cells, rather than structural cells, promoted fibrosis.
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