1.1H NMR-based metabolomics of Daphnia magna responses after sub-lethal exposure to triclosan, carbamazepine and ibuprofen.
Kovacevic V1, Simpson AJ1, Simpson MJ2. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2016 Jan 16. pii: S1744-117X(16)00005-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cbd.2016.01.004. [Epub ahead of print]
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are a class of emerging contaminants that are present in wastewater effluents, surface water, and groundwater around the world. There is a need to determine rapid and reliable bioindicators of exposure and the toxic mode of action of these contaminants to aquatic organisms. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics in combination with multivariate statistical analysis was used to determine the metabolic profile of Daphnia magna after exposure to a range of sub-lethal concentrations of triclosan (6.25-100μg/L), carbamazepine (1.75-14mg/L) and ibuprofen (1.75-14mg/L) for 48h. Sub-lethal triclosan exposure suggested a general oxidative stress condition and the branched-chain amino acids, glutamine, glutamate, and methionine emerged as potential bioindicators. The aromatic amino acids, serine, glycine and alanine are potential bioindicators for sub-lethal carbamazepine exposure that may have altered energy metabolism.
2.Ibuprofen sodium is absorbed faster than standard Ibuprofen tablets: results of two open-label, randomized, crossover pharmacokinetic studies.
Legg TJ1, Laurent AL, Leyva R, Kellstein D. Drugs R D. 2014 Dec;14(4):283-90. doi: 10.1007/s40268-014-0070-8.
BACKGROUND: A novel ibuprofen (IBU) formulation, Advil(®) Film-Coated Tablets (IBUNa), was developed.
3.Indomethacin vs ibuprofen: comparison of efficacy in the setting of conservative therapeutic approach.
Malikiwi A1, Roufaeil C, Tan K, Sehgal A. Eur J Pediatr. 2015 May;174(5):615-20. doi: 10.1007/s00431-014-2441-0. Epub 2014 Oct 26.
Indomethacin has been the mainstay for medical closure of patent ductus arteriosus. With its discontinuation, many units shifted to the use ibuprofen. We compared the therapeutic efficacy (successful closure, a priori defined as complete closure or >50% reduction in size) and the impact of the two drugs on neonatal morbidities. Two time epochs were analysed (IV indomethacin, January 2008 to November 2010, and IV ibuprofen lysine, November 2010 to September 2013). Demographic, clinical and echocardiographic data was compared. A total of 101 infants formed the study population, 58 (57.4%, indomethacin epoch) and 43 (42.6%, ibuprofen epoch). The gestational age, birth weight and postnatal age at initial treatment respectively were comparable [26 ± 1.8 vs 26.5 ± 1.9 weeks, 806 ± 183 vs 862 ± 234 g and median 12 (6, 17) vs 11 days (8, 18)]. Successful closure was significantly higher in the indomethacin group [26 (45%) vs 6 (14%), p < 0.
4.Particulate Study on NeoProfen, a Neonatal Injectable Product.
Krishna A1, Rice M1, Kester T2, Waters M2, Wilson T. PDA J Pharm Sci Technol. 2016 Jan-Feb;70(1):76-92. doi: 10.5731/pdajpst.2015.005587.
NeoProfen or sterile ibuprofen L-lysine at 10 mg/mL ibuprofen, in 2 mL single-use Type I glass vials is often a first choice medication used to close a patent ductus arteriosus in neonatal patients from 500 to 1500 g body weight. Visible particulate matter was found in vials that were placed on a commercial stability program prior to the approved expiration date of 2 years. A combination of instrumental techniques including inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and Raman and Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy was used to evaluate stability, pilot batch and packaging samples in a root cause investigation. The particulate matter was shown to consist largely of ibuprofen aluminum salts of various stoichiometries. It developed over time by a substitution mechanism, in which the ibuprofen anion in solution reacts with the aluminum oxide network of the borosilicate glass giving the ibuprofen aluminum salt with =Al-OH remaining in the network.