1.Rapid determination of losartan and losartan acid in human plasma by multiplexed LC-MS/MS.
Shah HJ1, Kundlik ML, Patel NK, Subbaiah G, Patel DM, Suhagia BN, Patel CN. J Sep Sci. 2009 Oct;32(20):3388-94. doi: 10.1002/jssc.200900287.
A rapid LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the determination of losartan (LOS) and its metabolite losartan acid (LA) (EXP-3174) in human plasma using multiplexing technique (two HPLC units connected to one MS/MS). LOS and LA were extracted from human plasma by SPE technique using Oasis HLB cartridge without evaporation and reconstitution steps. Hydroflumethiazide (HFTZ) was used as an internal standard (IS). The analytes were separated on Zorbax SB C-18 column. The mass transition [M-H] ions used for detection were m/z 421.0 --> 127.0 for LOS, m/z 435.0 --> 157.0 for LA, and m/z 330.0 --> 239.0 for HFTZ. The proposed method was validated over the concentration range of 2.5-2000 ng/mL for LOS and 5.0-3000 ng/mL for LA with correlation coefficient > or = 0.9993. The overall recoveries for LOS, LA, and IS were 96.53, 99.86, and 94.16%, respectively. Total MS run time was 2.0 min/sample. The validated method has been successfully used to analyze human plasma samples for applications in 100 mg fasted and fed pharmacokinetic studies.
2.High-speed gas chromatography in doping control: fast-GC and fast-GC/MS determination of beta-adrenoceptor ligands and diuretics.
Brunelli C1, Bicchi C, Di Stilo A, Salomone A, Vincenti M. J Sep Sci. 2006 Dec;29(18):2765-71.
In official doping controls, about 300 drugs and metabolites have to be screened for each sample. Moreover, the number of determinations to be routinely processed increases continuously as the number of both samples and potential illicit drugs keeps growing. As a consequence, increasingly specific, sensitive, and, above all, fast methods for doping controls are needed. The present study presents an efficient fast-GC/MS approach to the routine screening of two different classes of doping agents, namely beta-adrenoceptor ligands and diuretics (belonging to the S3, P2, and S5 groups of the WADA list of prohibited substances). Narrow bore columns (100 mm id) of different lengths and coated with apolar stationary phases were successfully used to separate the derivatized analytes; preliminary experiments (results not shown) showed better performances with OV-1701 for the separation of beta-adrenoceptor ligands. On the same stationary phase some diuretics required too high a temperature or a long isothermal time for elution, in which case a DB1-MS column was preferred.
3.Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Interaction of indapamide and related diuretics with 12 mammalian isozymes and X-ray crystallographic studies for the indapamide-isozyme II adduct.
Temperini C1, Cecchi A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Apr 15;18(8):2567-73. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.03.051. Epub 2008 Mar 20.
Diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide, hydroflumethiazide, quinethazone, metolazone, chlorthalidone, indapamide, furosemide, and bumetanide containing primary sulfamoyl moieties were reevaluated as inhibitors of 12 human carbonic anhydrases (hCAs, EC 184.108.40.206). These drugs considerably inhibit (low nanomolar range) some CA isozymes involved in critical physiologic processes, among the 16 present in vertebrates, for example, metolazone against CA VII, XII, and XIII, chlorthalidone against CA VB, VII, IX, XII, and XIII, indapamide against CA VII, IX, XII, and XIII, furosemide against CA I, II, and XIV, and bumetanide against CA IX and XII. The X-ray crystal structure of the hCA II-indapamide adduct was also resolved at high resolution.
4.Diuretics: from classical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors to novel applications of the sulfonamides.
Supuran CT1. Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14(7):641-8.
The widely clinically used benzothiadiazines and high ceiling diuretics, such as hydrochlorothiazide, hydroflumethiazide, quinethazone, metolazone, chlorthalidone, indapamide, furosemide and bumetanide, contain SO(2)NH(2) moieties acting as an effective zinc-binding function in carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 220.127.116.11) inhibitors. These drugs were launched in a period when only isoform CA II was known and considered physiologically/pharmacologically relevant. Although acting as moderate-weak inhibitors of CA II, all these drugs considerably inhibit other CA isozymes known nowadays to be involved in critical physiologic processes, among the 16 CAs present in vertebrates. Some low nanomolar (or even subnanomolar) inhibitors against such isoforms were recently detected, such as metholazone against CA VII, XII and XIII, chlorthalidone against CA VB, VII, IX, XII and XIII, indapamide against CA VII, IX, XII and XIII, furosemide against CA I, II and XIV, and bumethanide against CA IX and XII.