1.The evolution of drugs on schistosoma treatment: looking to the past to improve the future.
da Rocha Pitta MG1, da Rocha Pitta MG, de Melo Rêgo MJ, Galdino SL. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2013 Apr;13(4):493-508.
Schistosomiasis is a devastating worldwide widespread tropical disease that currently affects more than 230 million people, making it an issue of great socioeconomic and public health importance. Unfortunatelly there is a single drug for the treatment of all forms of schistosomiasis, praziquantel, which was introduced in therapy in 1980. The article goes by antimony compounds, emetine, hydantoin, nitrofurans, lucanthone, hycanthone, oxamniquine derivatives and organophosphates until it finally gets to praziquantel derivatives. The intent of this review is to provide a panorama of drugs that were and are being used in human chemotherapy looking to the past to improve rational design drugs in the future. Not only clinical used compounds will be shown but also synthesized and tested compounds in vitro and in vivo in animal models which haven't yet to be used in humans. Prospects for drug discovery and vaccines to be used in the treatment and prevention of schistosomiasis, clinical trials, concerns about the resistance/decreased effectiveness of the treatment, and patent database will also be discussed.
2.Identification of Additional Anti-Persister Activity against Borrelia burgdorferi from an FDA Drug Library.
Feng J1, Weitner M2, Shi W3, Zhang S4, Sullivan D5, Zhang Y6. Antibiotics (Basel). 2015 Sep 16;4(3):397-410. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics4030397.
Lyme disease is a leading vector-borne disease in the United States. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, 10%-20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, persisting organisms not killed by current Lyme antibiotics may be involved. In our previous study, we screened an FDA drug library and reported 27 top hits that showed high activity against Borrelia persisters. In this study, we present the results of an additional 113 active hits that have higher activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi than the currently used Lyme antibiotics. Many antimicrobial agents (antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, anthelmintics or antiparasitics) used for treating other infections were found to have better activity than the current Lyme antibiotics. These include antibacterials such as rifamycins (3-formal-rifamycin, rifaximin, rifamycin SV), thiostrepton, quinolone drugs (sarafloxacin, clinafloxacin, tosufloxacin), and cell wall inhibitors carbenicillin, tazobactam, aztreonam; antifungal agents such as fluconazole, mepartricin, bifonazole, climbazole, oxiconazole, nystatin; antiviral agents zanamivir, nevirapine, tilorone; antimalarial agents artemisinin, methylene blue, and quidaldine blue; antihelmintic and antiparasitic agents toltrazuril, tartar emetic, potassium antimonyl tartrate trihydrate, oxantel, closantel, hycanthone, pyrimethamine, and tetramisole.
3.O6-methylguanine and O6-methylguanine-DNA [corrected] methyltransferase activity in tissues of BDF-1 mice treated with antiparasitic drugs.
Badawi AF1. Toxicol Lett. 1998 Feb;94(3):199-208.
Levels of the DNA promutagenic methylation damage, O6-methylguanine (O6-MeG) and the activity of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), the enzyme responsible for repairing O6-MeG, were measured at various time intervals in tissues of BDF-I mice administered a single therapeutic dose of the antischistosomal agents hycanthone, oxaminiquine and metrifonate. Hycanthone increased O6-MeG in the liver-DNA after 6 h, then decreased by 3-fold after 48 h. Lower levels of the adduct and a slower rate of formation were found in the intestine and bladder. MGMT activities were significantly lower in the liver (74%) and bladder (25%) compared to control animals after 6 h, then restored by 48 h. Oxaminiquine increased O6-MeG in all tissues, but spleen, after 6 h and persisted only in the bladder after 48 h. Liver and bladder tissues of these animals exhibited a pattern of alteration in the MGMT activity similar to that observed for hycanthone.
4.Identification of new antimalarial drugs by linear discriminant analysis and topological virtual screening.
Mahmoudi N1, de Julián-Ortiz JV, Ciceron L, Gálvez J, Mazier D, Danis M, Derouin F, García-Domenech R. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006 Mar;57(3):489-97. Epub 2006 Jan 13.
OBJECTIVES: A quantitative structure-activity relationship study using a database of 395 compounds previously tested against chloroquine-susceptible strains of the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum to predict new in vitro antimalarial drugs has been developed.