1.Subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni Penner serotypes 9, 38 and 63 from human infections, animals and water by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and flagellin gene analysis.
Lorenz E;Lastovica A;Owen RJ Lett Appl Microbiol. 1998 Mar;26(3):179-82.
Pulsed field gel electrophoresis and PCR-RFLP flagellin gene profiling were used to discriminate 44 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni Penner heat stable (HS) serotypes 9, 38 and 63 from sporadic human infections and other sources. Genomic similarities between HS9 and HS38 strains were demonstrated. HS63 and HS1 strains of Camp. jejuni ssp. jejuni were similar but were genomically distinct from Camp. jejuni ssp. doylei HS63. The molecular analyses provided a basis for assessing associations between cross-agglutinating strains of Camp. jejuni and for subtyping within those serogroups.
2.A Small Molecule Pyrazolo[3,4-d]Pyrimidinone Inhibitor of Zipper-Interacting Protein Kinase Suppresses Calcium Sensitization of Vascular Smooth Muscle.
MacDonald JA;Sutherland C;Carlson DA;Bhaidani S;Al-Ghabkari A;Swärd K;Haystead TA;Walsh MP Mol Pharmacol. 2016 Jan;89(1):105-17. doi: 10.1124/mol.115.100529. Epub 2015 Oct 13.
A novel inhibitor of zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) was used to examine the involvement of ZIPK in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Pretreatment of de-endothelialized rat caudal arterial smooth muscle strips with the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidinone inhibitor 2-((1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo [3,4-d]-pyrimidin-6-yl)thio)propanamide (HS38) decreased the velocity of contraction (time to reach half-maximal force) induced by the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A in the presence of Ca(2+) without affecting maximal force development. This effect was reversed following washout of HS38 and correlated with a reduction in the rate of phosphorylation of myosin 20-kDa regulatory light chains (LC20) but not of protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitory protein for myosin phosphatase of 17 kDa (CPI-17), prostate apoptosis response-4, or myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1), all of which have been implicated in the regulation of vascular contractility. A structural analog of HS38, with inhibitory activity toward proviral integrations of Moloney (PIM) virus 3 kinase but not ZIPK, had no effect on calyculin A-induced contraction or protein phosphorylations.
3.Fluorescence linked enzyme chemoproteomic strategy for discovery of a potent and selective DAPK1 and ZIPK inhibitor.
Carlson DA;Franke AS;Weitzel DH;Speer BL;Hughes PF;Hagerty L;Fortner CN;Veal JM;Barta TE;Zieba BJ;Somlyo AV;Sutherland C;Deng JT;Walsh MP;MacDonald JA;Haystead TA ACS Chem Biol. 2013 Dec 20;8(12):2715-23. doi: 10.1021/cb400407c. Epub 2013 Oct 17.
DAPK1 and ZIPK (also called DAPK3) are closely related serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate programmed cell death and phosphorylation of non-muscle and smooth muscle myosin. We have developed a fluorescence linked enzyme chemoproteomic strategy (FLECS) for the rapid identification of inhibitors for any element of the purinome and identified a selective pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidinone (HS38) that inhibits DAPK1 and ZIPK in an ATP-competitive manner at nanomolar concentrations. In cellular studies, HS38 decreased RLC20 phosphorylation. In ex vivo studies, HS38 decreased contractile force generated in mouse aorta, rabbit ileum, and calyculin A stimulated arterial muscle by decreasing RLC20 and MYPT1 phosphorylation. The inhibitor also promoted relaxation in Ca(2+)-sensitized vessels. A close structural analogue (HS43) with 5-fold lower affinity for ZIPK produced no effect on cells or tissues. These findings are consistent with a mechanism of action wherein HS38 specifically targets ZIPK in smooth muscle. The discovery of HS38 provides a lead scaffold for the development of therapeutic agents for smooth muscle related disorders and a chemical means to probe the function of DAPK1 and ZIPK across species.