1. Higenamine regulates Nrf2-HO-1-Hmgb1 axis and attenuates intestinal ischemia–reperfusion injury in mice
Chao Liu • Chenyu Zhu • Guangsheng Wang • Rui Xu • Yaoming Zhu. Inﬂamm. Res. (2015) 64:395–403
Some animals received Higenamine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) just before reperfusion. In ZnPPIX-treated animal study, ZnPPIX (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated 30 min before Higenamine treatment. In some groups, anti-Hgmb1 antibody (6 mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated just before reperfusion. For animal experiments using recombinant Hmgb1 (rHmgb1), animals received an intravenous bolus (tail vein) injection of 100 ng/ml of rHmgb1 (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN). Animals received rHmgb1 injection 1 h after IR.
2. Higenamine reduces HMGB1 during hypoxia-induced brain injury by induction of heme oxygenase-1 through PI3K/Akt/Nrf-2 signal pathways
Yu Mi Ha • Min Young Kim • Min Kyu Park. Apoptosis (2012) 17:463–474
Higenamine (1-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-6,7-diol), an active ingredient of Aconite tuber, has been traditionally used as cardiac inotropic and anti-inﬂammatory agents in oriental countries. Recently, we reported that higenamine reduced rat I/R-induced myocardial damage which was dependent on HO-1 activity. In addition, higenamine inhibits platelet aggregation and has anti-thrombotic effect which may be additionally beneﬁcial on hypoxic-injury such as stroke. Because neurons are less equipped than glial cells in terms of defense against free radicals, glial cells may play an important role in response to ischemic stroke. The C6 glial cell is well characterized as a permanent cell line which readily differentiates and responds to stimulation with inﬂammatory cytokines. The C6 cells also express glial ﬁbrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and upregulate GFAP expression following treatment with toxins in a manner similar to that seen in primary rat astrogliaso that it provides a good model for investigation of glial cell function.
3. Quantitative analysis and formulation development of a traditional Thai antihypertensive herbal recipe
Tossaton Charoonratana • Thanapat Songsak • Chaowalit Monton. Phytochem Rev (2014) 13:511–524
In a ﬁngerprint of ESI-positive aqueous TTAH extract, three compounds were identiﬁed, including higenamine (m/z 271.0), salsolinol (m/z 179.1), and adenosine (m/z 267.0). It was found that higenamine, salsolinol, and adenosine wereminor compounds from the aqueous extract of T. crispa. Reports indicated that these compounds can decrease blood pressure via adrenoreceptors and the purinergic adenosine A2 and P2 receptors (Praman et al. 2011, 2012). The pharmacological activities of the plant extracts and their compounds were reviewed and used to support the use of TTAH. In general, the herbs comprising the recipe exhibit antihypertensive, anti-inﬂammatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antiobesity, and diuretic properties. Piperine, imperatorin, higenamine, salsolinol, and adenosine may work in concert to reduce blood pressure. Imperatorin, pinocembrin, verbascoside and C. rotundus extract are also highlighted for their anti-inﬂammatory effects, which can be related to detoxiﬁcation.