1.Truncated human serum albumin retains general anaesthetic binding activity.
Liu R1, Yang J, Ha CE, Bhagavan NV, Eckenhoff RG. Biochem J. 2005 May 15;388(Pt 1):39-45.
Multiple binding sites for anaesthetics in HSA (human serum albumin) make solution studies difficult to interpret. In the present study, we expressed the wild-type HSA domain 3 (wtHSAd3), a peptide with two known anaesthetic binding sites in a yeast expression system. We also expressed a site-directed mutant of domain 3 (Y411Wd3). The stability and secondary structure of the constructed fragments were determined by HX (hydrogen-tritium exchange) and CD spectroscopy. The binding of two general anaesthetics, 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane and propofol, to wtHSAd3 and Y411Wd3 was determined using isothermal titration calorimetry, HX and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence quenching. Although the expressed fragments are less stable than intact wtHSA as indicated by both CD and HX, they retain the secondary structure and anaesthetic-binding characteristics of an intact HSA molecule, but with fewer binding sites. Y411Wd3 had decreased affinity for propofol but not for 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane, consistent with steric hindrance.
2.Synthesis of new synthons for organofluorine compounds from halothane containing sulfur functional groups.
Kato M1, Maeda K, Sato K, Omote M, Ando A, Kumadaki I. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2000 May;48(5):683-6.
To develop new synthons for the syntheses of organofluorine compounds, the treatment of Halothane, 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane, (1) with 4-methylbenzenethiol (2) in the presence of sodium hydride gave 1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl 4-methylphenyl sulfide (3), which was oxidized with m-chloroperbenzoic acid (m-CPBA) to the corresponding sulfoxide (4) and sulfone (5). Reaction of 3 and 5 with allyltributyltin in the presence of 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) gave 1-(trifluoromethyl)-3-butenyl compounds (9, 11). Sulfoxide 4 was decomposed in this condition. The treatment of 3 with allyltrimethylsilane in the presence of Lewis acids gave 1-(trifluoromethyl)-3-butenyl compounds (9) in good yield. This result suggests that 4-methylphenylthio substituent stabilizes the alpha-carbocation effectively, though the trifluoromethyl group destabilizes it strongly. Aromatic compounds similarly reacted with 3 in the presence of titanium(IV) chloride to give 2-aryl-1,1,1-trifluoro-2-(4-methylphenylthio)ethanes.
3.Computational predictions of volatile anesthetic interactions with the microtubule cytoskeleton: implications for side effects of general anesthesia.
Craddock TJ1, St George M, Freedman H, Barakat KH, Damaraju S, Hameroff S, Tuszynski JA. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e37251. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037251. Epub 2012 Jun 25.
The cytoskeleton is essential to cell morphology, cargo trafficking, and cell division. As the neuronal cytoskeleton is extremely complex, it is no wonder that a startling number of neurodegenerative disorders (including but not limited to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease) share the common feature of a dysfunctional neuronal cytoskeleton. Recently, concern has been raised about a possible link between anesthesia, post-operative cognitive dysfunction, and the exacerbation of neurodegenerative disorders. Experimental investigations suggest that anesthetics bind to and affect cytoskeletal microtubules, and that anesthesia-related cognitive dysfunction involves microtubule instability, hyper-phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau, and tau separation from microtubules. However, exact mechanisms are yet to be identified. In this paper the interaction of anesthetics with the microtubule subunit protein tubulin is investigated using computer-modeling methods.
4.Genotoxicity of inhalation anesthetics halothane and isoflurane in human lymphocytes studied in vitro using the comet assay.
Jaloszyński P1, Kujawski M, Wasowicz M, Szulc R, Szyfter K. Mutat Res. 1999 Feb 19;439(2):199-206.
The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay was applied to study genotoxic properties of two inhalation anesthetics-halothane and isoflurane-in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The cells were exposed in vitro to either halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) or isoflurane (1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether) at concentrations 0.1-10 mM in DMSO. The anesthetics-induced DNA strand breaks as well as alkali-labile sites were measured as total comet length (i.e., increase of a DNA migration). Both analysed drugs were capable of increasing DNA migration in a dose-dependent manner. In experiments conducted at two different electrophoretic conditions (0. 56 and 0.78 V/cm), halothane was able to increase DNA migration to a higher extent than isoflurane. The comet assay detects DNA strand breaks induced directly by genotoxic agents as well as DNA degradation due to cell death. For this reason a contribution of toxicity in the observed effects was examined.