1.Anthocyanins inhibit high-glucose-induced cholesterol accumulation and inflammation by activating LXRα pathway in HK-2 cells.
Du C1, Shi Y1, Ren Y1, Wu H1, Yao F1, Wei J1, Wu M1, Hou Y1, Duan H1. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2015 Sep 4;9:5099-113. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S90201. eCollection 2015.
The dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism and inflammation plays a significant role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Anthocyanins are polyphenols widely distributed in food and exert various biological effects including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperlipidemic effects. However, it remains unclear whether anthocyanins are associated with DN, and the mechanisms involved in the reciprocal regulation of inflammation and cholesterol efflux are yet to be elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and the anti-inflammatory effects exerted by anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside chloride [C3G] or cyanidin chloride [Cy]) and investigated the underlying molecular mechanism of action using high-glucose (HG)-stimulated HK-2 cells. We found that anthocyanins enhanced cholesterol efflux and ABCA1 expression markedly in HK-2 cells. In addition, they increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) expression and decreased the HG-induced expression of the proinflammatory cytokines intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1), as well as NFκB activation.
2.Effects of insulin and its related signaling pathways on lipid metabolism in the yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.
Zhuo MQ1, Luo Z2, Pan YX1, Wu K1, Fan YF1, Zhang LH1, Song YF1. J Exp Biol. 2015 Oct;218(Pt 19):3083-90. doi: 10.1242/jeb.124271. Epub 2015 Aug 7.
The influence of insulin on hepatic metabolism in fish is not well understood. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the effects of insulin on lipid metabolism, and the related signaling pathways, in the yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Hepatic lipid and intracellular triglyceride (TG) content, the activity and expression levels of several enzymes and the mRNA expression of transcription factors (PPARα and PPARγ) involved in lipid metabolism were determined. Troglitazone, GW6471, fenofibrate and wortmannin were used to explore the signaling pathways by which insulin influences lipid metabolism. Insulin tended to increase hepatic lipid accumulation, the activity of lipogenic enzymes (6PGD, G6PD, ME, ICDH and FAS) and mRNA levels of FAS, G6PD, 6PGD, CPT IA and PPARγ, but down-regulated PPARα mRNA level. The insulin-induced effect could be stimulated by the specific PPARγ activator troglitazone or reversed by the PI3 kinase/Akt inhibitor wortmannin, demonstrating that signaling pathways of PPARγ and PI3 kinase/Akt were involved in the insulin-induced alteration of lipid metabolism.
3.Smad2/3 Upregulates the Expression of Vimentin and Affects Its Distribution in DBP-Exposed Sertoli Cells.
Zhang X1, Wang X1, Liu T1, Mo M1, Ao L1, Liu J1, Cao J1, Cui Z1. PPAR Res. 2015;2015:489314. doi: 10.1155/2015/489314. Epub 2015 Dec 24.
Sertoli cells (SCs) in the testes provide physical and nutritional support to germ cells. The vimentin cytoskeleton in SCs is disrupted by dibutyl phthalate (DBP), which leads to SCs dysfunction. In a previous study, we found that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) influenced the distribution of vimentin by affecting its phosphorylation in DBP-exposed SCs. In the present study, we investigated the role of Smad2/3 in regulating the expression of vimentin in DBP-exposed SCs. We hypothesized that Smad2/3 affects the distribution of vimentin by regulating its expression and that there is cross talk between Smad2/3 and PPARα. The real-time PCR and ChIP-qPCR results showed that SB431542 (an inhibitor of Smad2/3) could significantly attenuate the expression of vimentin induced by DBP in SCs. Phosphorylated and soluble vimentin were both downregulated by SB431542 pretreatment. WY14643 (an agonist of PPARα) pretreatment stimulated, while GW6471 (an antagonist of PPARα) inhibited, the activity of Smad2/3; SB431542 pretreatment also inhibited the activity of PPARα, but it did not rescue the DBP-induced collapse in vimentin.
4.Effects of PPARα/PGC-1α on the energy metabolism remodeling and apoptosis in the doxorubicin induced mice cardiomyocytes in vitro.
Yang Y1, Zhang H2, Li X2, Yang T1, Jiang Q1. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015 Oct 1;8(10):12216-24. eCollection 2015.
Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most frequent form of myocardial disease. Many factors contribute to dilated cardiomyopathy, for instance, long-term use of doxorubicin, one of the anthracyclines clinically used for cancer chemotherapy, result in dilated cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. However, the mechanism underlining doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte is still not fully understood. In this study, we evaluate the effects and their mechanisms of PPARα and PGC-1α pathways in doxorubicin induced mice cardiomyocytes. In vitro, cardiomyocytes isolated from hearts of adult FVB/NJ mice were treated with doxorubicin, GW 6471 (PPARα inhibitors) and WY14643 (PPARα agonists). The expression of PPARα and PGC-1α were detected via western blotting and Quantitative Real-Time PCR methods. Changes in energy and substrate metabolism were analyzed. MTT and flow cytometry were used for cell proliferation and apoptosis analysis. We detected expression of PPARα and PGC-1α was significantly higher in control group than doxorubicin group.